Document
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 26, 2020.
Registration No. 333-          
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
7372
84-3721253
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
805 Broadway Street, Suite 900
Vancouver, Washington 98660
Telephone: (800) 914-1220
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
Anthony Stark
General Counsel
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
805 Broadway Street, Suite 900
Vancouver, Washington 98660
Telephone: (800) 914-1220
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
Copies to:
Richard A. Fenyes
Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP
425 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10017
Telephone: (212) 455-2000
Marc D. Jaffe
Jason M. Licht
Stelios G. Saffos
Latham & Watkins LLP
885 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10022
Telephone: (212) 906-1200
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.
 
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  
 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Proposed Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
$500,000,000
$64,900
(1)
Estimated solely for the purpose of determining the amount of the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933.
(2)
Includes                           shares of Class A common stock that are subject to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.
 
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 



 
 
 
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED               , 2020    
PROSPECTUS
        Shares
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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Class A Common Stock
$          per share
This is the initial public offering of shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. We are selling               shares of our Class A common stock. We currently expect the initial public offering price to be between $              and $             per share of Class A common stock. We intend to apply to list our shares of Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “ZI.”
Following this offering, we will have two classes of common stock: Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Holders of shares of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote for each share of Class A common stock held of record on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally. Holders of shares of our Class B common stock are entitled to ten votes for each share of Class B common stock held of record (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders (as defined herein) and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders (as defined herein) represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. See “Description of Capital Stock.” ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo (as defined herein), which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be an indirect controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo (as defined herein). The number of outstanding LLC Units (as defined herein) of ZoomInfo OpCo will equal the aggregate number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock. See “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions.”
After the completion of this offering, certain affiliates of each of TA Associates, Carlyle, and our Founders (each as defined herein) will be parties to a stockholders agreement and will beneficially own approximately      % of the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock (or       % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). As a result, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. See “Management—Controlled Company Exception” and “Principal Stockholders.” 
We intend to use all of the net proceeds from this offering (including from any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) (i) to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will purchase the same number of newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo, (ii) to purchase LLC Units from certain Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders; and (iii) to fund merger consideration payable to certain Pre-IPO Shareholders (as defined herein) in connection with the Blocker Mergers (as defined herein). The foregoing purchases of HoldCo Units and LLC Units will be at a price per unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. We will only retain net proceeds used to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will, in turn, purchase newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo OpCo expects to use the proceeds it receives through ZoomInfo HoldCo from this offering to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units (as defined herein), to repay our second lien term loans, and for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transaction—Purchase of LLC Units and Class A Common Stock.”
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”  
Investing in shares of our Class A common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 24. 
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Share
 
Total
Initial public offering price............................................................................................................................................
$
 
$
Underwriting discount(1)...............................................................................................................................................
$
 
$
Proceeds, before expenses, to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. .........................................................................................
$
 
$
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1)      We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain expenses in connection with this offering. Please see the section entitled “Underwriting” for a description of compensation payable to the underwriters.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
To the extent that the underwriters sell more than             shares of our Class A common stock, the underwriters have the option, within 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to an additional             shares of our Class A common stock from us at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount. 
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of our Class A common stock against payment in New York, New York on or about                 , 2020. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joint Book-Running Managers
 
 
 
 
J.P. Morgan*
Morgan Stanley*
Barclays
Credit Suisse

BofA Securities
Deutsche Bank Securities
RBC Capital Markets
UBS Investment Bank
Wells Fargo Securities
 
 
 
Co-Managers
 
 
 
Canaccord Genuity
JMP Securities
Mizuho Securities
Piper Sandler
Raymond James
Stifel
SunTrust Robinson Humphrey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*   In alphabetical order.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The date of this prospectus is          , 2020.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



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Table of Contents
 
Page
F- 1
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus we may authorize to be delivered or made available to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under the circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. Neither we nor the underwriters take any responsibility for, or can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any information other than the information in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. The information in this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of its date, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any amendment or supplement to this prospectus, or any applicable free writing prospectus, as applicable, or any sale of shares of our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date.
For Investors Outside the United States: We and the underwriters are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our Class A common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. Neither we nor the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of our Class A common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.



About this Prospectus
Financial Statement Presentation
This prospectus includes certain historical combined and consolidated financial and other data for ZoomInfo OpCo. Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo on its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the LLC Units held by our pre-IPO owners (as defined below) on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations.
On February 1, 2019, we acquired, through a newly formed wholly owned subsidiary, Zebra Acquisition Corporation, 100% of the stock of Zoom Information, Inc. (“Pre-Acquisition ZI”). Pre-Acquisition ZI was a leading provider of company and contact information to sales and marketing professionals. The Zoom Information Acquisition (as defined below) qualifies as a business combination and was accounted for as such. We included the financial results of Pre-Acquisition ZI in the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo from the date of the Zoom Information Acquisition. Accordingly, the financial statements for the periods prior to the Zoom Information Acquisition may not be comparable to those for the periods after the Zoom Information Acquisition.
Numerical figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in various tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them.
Certain Definitions
As used in this prospectus, unless otherwise noted or the context requires otherwise:
“22C Capital” refers to investment funds associated with 22C Capital LLC and its predecessor.
“ACV” refers to annual contract value, or the total annualized value that a customer has agreed to pay for subscription services at any particular point in time under contract(s) that are or were enforceable at that point in time.
“Blocker Companies” refers to certain of our Pre-IPO Shareholders that are taxable as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
“CAC” refers to customer acquisition cost, or the cost of acquiring a new customer. We calculate CAC as (i) our adjusted sales and marketing expense, which excludes expenses that are non-cash or one-time in nature, including equity compensation costs, amortization related to acquired technology, and acquisition-related integration and compensation expenses, divided by (ii) the number of new customers added during the period.
“Carlyle” refers to investment funds associated with The Carlyle Group.
“Class P Units” refers to Class P Units (including, without limitation, any indirectly held Class P Units) of ZoomInfo OpCo. The Class P Units are “profits interests” having economic characteristics similar to stock options and have the right to share in any equity value of ZoomInfo OpCo above specified distribution thresholds.
“Continuing Class P Unitholders” refers to certain pre-IPO owners who will continue to hold Class P Units following the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions.
“customers” refers to companies that have contracted with us to use our services and, at the time of measurement, maintain one or more active paid subscriptions to our platform(s). Paid subscriptions will generally include access for a number of employees or other affiliated persons of the customer.

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“Datanyze” refers, collectively, to Datanyze, Inc. and Datanyze Rus, LLC.
“existing owners” or “pre-IPO owners” refer, collectively, to the Sponsors, the Founders, and the management and other equity holders who are the owners of ZoomInfo OpCo immediately prior to the Offering Transactions (as defined herein).
“Employee Units” refers to the HoldCo Units into which certain Class P Units (including, without limitation, certain indirectly held Class P Units) will be converted in the Reorganization Transactions. Each LLC Unit and HoldCo Unit will have equivalent value and conversion rights to convert into Class A common stock, subject to applicable vesting.
“Founders” refers to Henry Schuck, our Chief Executive Officer, and Kirk Brown.
“HoldCo Units” refers to the new class of units of ZoomInfo HoldCo created by the Reclassification. It is anticipated that each LLC Unit and HoldCo Unit will have equivalent value and exchange rights.
“HSKB” refers to HSKB Funds, LLC, a privately held limited liability company formed on February 9, 2016 for the purpose of issuing equity to certain persons who had performed and would continue to perform services for ZoomInfo OpCo.
“LLC Units” refers to the new class of units of ZoomInfo OpCo created by the Reclassification, and does not include Class P Units. Each LLC Unit and HoldCo Unit will have equivalent value and conversion rights to convert into Class A common stock, subject to applicable vesting.
“LTV” refers to lifetime value, or the value that we expect to generate from a customer during the period that the customer continues to use our services. We calculate LTV as the product of (i) our average ACV per customer, multiplied by (ii) our adjusted gross margin, which excludes expenses that are non-cash or one-time in nature, including equity compensation costs, amortization related to acquired technology, and acquisition-related integration and compensation expenses, multiplied by (iii) the fraction that is one divided by the annual rate that customers cancel subscriptions, which is defined as the percentage of ACV for customers that cancel during the period divided by the ACV at the beginning of the period.
“NeverBounce” refers to Metrics Delivered LLC.
“paid users” refers to employees or other affiliated persons of a customer that have been granted access to our system under the terms of a contract with a customer.
“Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders” refers to the pre-IPO owners that hold HoldCo Units immediately prior to the consummation of this offering.
“Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders” refers to the pre-IPO owners that hold LLC Units immediately prior to the consummation of this offering.
“Pre-IPO Shareholders” refers to the pre-IPO owners that hold their interests in us through the Blocker Companies immediately prior to the consummation of this offering.
“RainKing” refers to Rain King Software, Inc.
“Series A Preferred Units” refers to the Series A preferred units of ZoomInfo OpCo.
“Sponsors” refers, collectively, to TA Associates, Carlyle, and 22C Capital.
“TA Associates” refers to investment funds associated with TA Associates.
“total addressable market” or “TAM” refers to the revenue opportunity that we believe is available to go-to-market intelligence solutions, such as ours. We calculate our TAM as the sum of (i) the product of (a) the number of specifically identified companies in our system with 10 to 99 employees and who sell to other businesses, multiplied by (b) the average ACV that we generate from companies with 10 to 99 employees, plus (ii) the product of (a) the number of specifically identified companies in our system with 100 to 999

ii


employees and who sell to other businesses, multiplied by (b) the average ACV that we generate from companies with 100 to 999 employees, plus (iii) the product of (a) the number of specifically identified companies in our system with over 1,000 employees, multiplied by the average ACV that we generated from the top quartile of customers over 1,000 employees.
“ZoomInfo,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer, (1) prior to the consummation of the Offering Transactions, to ZoomInfo OpCo and its consolidated subsidiaries and, (2) after the Offering Transactions, to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
“ZoomInfo HoldCo” refers to ZoomInfo Intermediate Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. following the Reorganization Transactions.
“ZoomInfo OpCo” refers to ZoomInfo Holdings LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC), a Delaware limited liability company and a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo HoldCo and indirect subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. following the Reorganization Transactions.
 
Unless indicated otherwise, the information included in this prospectus assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional                      shares of Class A common stock from us solely to cover over-allotments and that the shares of Class A common stock to be sold in this offering are sold at $           per share, which is the midpoint of the price range indicated on the front cover of this prospectus.

iii


SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in shares of our Class A common stock. Before you decide to invest in shares of our Class A common stock, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.
Overview
Our mission is to unlock actionable business information and insights to make organizations more successful.
ZoomInfo is a leading go-to-market intelligence platform for sales and marketing teams. Our cloud-based platform provides highly accurate and comprehensive information on the organizations and professionals they target. This “360-degree view” enables sellers and marketers to shorten sales cycles and increase win rates by delivering the right message, to the right person, at the right time, to hit their number.
Every business needs to sell effectively to thrive. Today, sales and marketing is inherently inefficient. Sales representatives spend only a third of their time actually selling, in large part because they must spend so much of their time researching, curating, and organizing data, which is often of poor quality. Sales and marketing teams often lack scalable and actionable go-to-market intelligence to engage their customers and prospects. All organizations that sell to other businesses can use ZoomInfo to sell more, in a smarter, better, and faster way.
Today, approximately 192,000 paid users leverage our platform to identify the best target customers, pinpoint the right decision makers, obtain continually updated predictive lead and company scoring, monitor buying signals and other attributes of target companies, craft the right message, engage via automated sales tools, and track progress through the deal cycle. Our go-to-market intelligence platform delivers comprehensive and high-quality intelligence and analytics on over 14 million companies, including advanced attributes, technologies used by companies, intent signals, and decision-maker contact information. Our intelligence is kept up to date in real time.
By leveraging artificial intelligence (“AI”) and machine learning techniques (“ML”), the ZoomInfo platform is able to process billions of raw data events and refine them into unique and actionable insights. To create these insights, our platform continuously collects, enriches, curates, and verifies the data from millions of proprietary and public sources, including our contributory network, which captures data on over 50 million contact record events daily from our free Community Edition users and many of our paying customers.


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Our software, insights, and data enable over 14,000 companies to sell and market more effectively and efficiently. Our customers operate in almost every industry vertical, including software, business services, manufacturing, telecommunications, financial services and insurance, retail, media and internet, transportation, education, hospitality, healthcare, and real estate, and range from the largest global enterprises, to mid-market companies, down to small and medium-sized businesses (“SMBs”). As customers continue their journey with us, we help them move up the go-to-market maturity curve from basic go-to-market operations, such as finding target accounts and contacts, to more sophisticated motions, such as prioritizing accounts, automating workflows and campaigns, crafting nuanced pitches, and monitoring deal momentum. Our robust suite of software and insights supports every step along that journey.
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Independent of size or industry, we believe our platform can make almost any sales and marketing team more effective and more efficient.
This broad applicability drives our TAM of approximately $24 billion, according to our estimates. Using the ZoomInfo platform, we have identified over 800,000 global businesses that sell to other businesses and have more than ten employees, which represent our potential customers. Our current customer base of over 14,000 implies penetration of less than 2%.
Internally, we use the ZoomInfo platform to drive our own highly effective and efficient go-to-market motion. We have developed a high-velocity lead generation engine and invested in tech-enabled processes, such as lead scoring and lead routing, fueled by our data and insights. When combined with our investments in onboarding, training, and sales enablement, this results in an optimized go-to-market motion. Our median new business sales cycle from opportunity creation to close is less than 30 days, and our average LTV compared to our average CAC is over 10x. Our focus on customer adoption, success, and expansion helps us to deliver continued value and creates opportunities for increased usage. Today, over 580 of our customers spend more than $100,000 in ACV, with 13 customers spending over $1,000,000 in ACV.
ZoomInfo, formerly known as DiscoverOrg, was co-founded in 2007 by our CEO, Henry Schuck. DiscoverOrg achieved significant organic growth since its founding and acquired Zoom Information, Inc. (“Pre-Acquisition ZI”) in February 2019 to further expand the breadth of our go-to-market intelligence, industry coverage, and addressable market opportunity. Subsequently, the combined business has been re-branded as ZoomInfo. We and Pre-Acquisition ZI generated revenue of $144.3 million and $72.5 million in 2018, respectively. We generated revenue of $293.3 million in 2019 and Pre-Acquisition ZI generated revenue of $9.7 million for the one month ended January 31, 2019.


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Industry Background
Sales and Marketing is Fundamental to Every Business
For every company, sales and marketing is a fundamental function that defines its success. As a result, businesses typically spend significantly on sales and marketing activities. For example, Forbes Global 2000 companies collectively spent over $2 trillion on sales and marketing activities alone in 2018 according to Capital IQ.
Business-to-Business (“B2B”) Sales and Marketing has Changed
Prior to the advent of sales and marketing technologies, businesses that sold to other businesses operated in an analog world, relying on field sales representatives to gather customer information and navigate sales processes. This process was manual, expensive, and inefficient. The data gathered was limited in depth, breadth, and accuracy, and began decaying as soon as it was captured. To address these problems, businesses invested in new technologies like customer relationship management (“CRM”) to digitally transform the way they sell. The CRM market grew from $12 billion in 2009 to $42 billion in 2018, representing a nearly 250% increase, according to a 2019 Global Industry Analysts, Inc. report. CRM systems were adopted primarily to manage the sales process, while marketing automation systems and new forms of customer engagement were developed to automate different go-to-market tasks. Despite these investments, businesses still rely largely on manual processes to gather intelligence to drive these systems. Consequently, the data that supports CRM and sales & marketing automation systems and workflows is frequently stale, inaccurate, incomplete, and limited in depth and breadth.
Sales and Marketing is Still Inefficient
According to Salesforce.com, sales representatives spend only a third of their time actually selling, in large part because they must spend so much of their time researching and organizing data, which is often of poor quality. This inefficiency is manifested in three main ways:
1)
It’s hard to find and engage with decision makers. Inaccurate or missing contact information plagues efforts to engage with a broad set of targets quickly and efficiently.
2)
It’s hard to know when to engage. Sales and marketing professionals need to manually gather information across various sources to determine when a potential customer intends to make a purchase.
3)
No data-driven way to prioritize targets. Prioritization decisions for sales and marketing resources are often made based on intuition, random knowledge gathering, or incomplete and inaccurate data.
There is a Need for a Comprehensive Go-to-Market Intelligence Solution
Sales and marketing teams need go-to-market intelligence to engage the right people, at the right companies, with the right message, at the right time. Go-to-market intelligence provides a “360-degree view,” aggregating all the information and intelligence gathered from numerous sources that together paint a comprehensive dynamic picture of target customers, their organizational structure, corporate hierarchy, decision-makers, and methods of contact. This all needs to be updated in real time and integrated into workflows through CRM and sales & marketing automation systems—the systems nearly every company uses to manage its sales and marketing processes.
Today, point solutions exist to aid in go-to-market intelligence efforts, but they only address a fraction of the 360-degree view of the customer, and often lack the accuracy required to be effective. According to a Forrester report we commissioned, only 1.2% of companies have mature B2B intelligence practices and technology. Companies that have implemented some B2B intelligence practices and technology have realized 35% more leads and 45% higher-quality leads, leading to higher revenue and faster growth.
The ZoomInfo Platform
Our cloud-based go-to-market intelligence platform give sales and marketing professionals highly accurate and comprehensive information and insights on the organizations and professionals they target. Our platform helps users identify the best target customers, pinpoint the right decision makers, obtain continually updated predictive lead and


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company scoring, monitor buying signals and other attributes of target companies, craft the right message, engage via automated sales tools, and track progress through the deal cycle.
We provide a comprehensive 360-degree view on over 14 million companies and 100 million professionals. We combine this with deep insights, such as personnel moves, pain points or planned investments, technologies used by companies, intent signals, advanced attributes (such as time series growth, granular department and location information, and employee trends), organizational charts, news and events, hierarchy information, locations, and funding details. Our intelligence is kept up to date in real time. This enables us to provide our customers with a contractual guarantee that at least 95% of the employment information they access will be current.
Our Data Engine
Our Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Technologies
We are able to deliver high-quality intelligence at scale by leveraging an AI- and ML-powered engine that gathers data from millions of sources and standardizes, matches to entities, verifies, cleans, and applies the processed data to companies and people. To help train our AI and ML technologies and augment our contributory network, we have a team of 300 research analysts with deep expertise in cleaning B2B data.
Our Data Sources
We have a number of data sources, including proprietary sources, that enrich our platform:
Contributory Network. Our free users and many of our paying customers contribute data that enhances our platform. Our contributory network captures data on over 50 million contact record events daily.
Unstructured Public Information. Our patented and proprietary technologies extract and parse unstructured information found on webpages, newsfeeds, blogs, and other public sources, and then match that information with entities that we have previously identified.
Data Training Lab. We have developed hundreds of processes, largely automated, to gather information from sources, such as PBX directories, website traffic and source code, and proprietary surveys.
Generally Available Information. Our technology adds value to public information and a limited amount of purchased third-party data by combining them with our proprietary insights.
Benefits of Our Platform
Significant and Measurable Revenue Improvement. Our platform increases revenue for our customers who can easily measure the impact because we integrate with the systems that they use to attribute revenue.
Unmatched Accuracy, Depth, and Coverage of Data. We are able to provide a guarantee of 95%+ accuracy as a result of our focus on quality, coupled with proprietary methods to extract, parse, match, and clean data. We do not believe that any other solution provides the depth and breadth of data that we provide on over 14 million companies and over 100 million professionals.
Unique Data Points Drive Valuable Insights. We integrate unique data points that are proprietary to ZoomInfo with our customers’ data to enrich their information and develop unique insights.
Integrated and Automated Platform. Our insights are available on our cloud-based platform and can also be delivered directly into our customers’ workflows and supporting infrastructure, including Salesforce, Marketo, HubSpot, Microsoft Dynamics, Oracle Sales Cloud, and other platforms. The vast majority of our customers integrate ZoomInfo with their most-used CRM or sales & marketing automation system.
Our Competitive Strengths
Market Leader with a Comprehensive Go-to-Market Intelligence Platform. We provide the most accurate and comprehensive go-to-market intelligence platform available.


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Finely Tuned Go-to-Market Model. We utilize the ZoomInfo platform to power our efficient go-to-market motion. In 2019, our average LTV to average CAC was over 10x.
High-Velocity Software Development. We foster an innovative, fast-paced engineering culture that enabled the release of 112 product features and services in 2019.
Viral Enthusiasm Driven by Our Base of “Fanatic Users.” We have approximately 62,000 “Fanatic Users,” which we define as users with over 100 activities, such as searches, exports, record views, and list match requests, among others, on the platform per month. We believe our Fanatic Users drive viral adoption of our platform.
Powerful and Significant Network Effects. As our user base grows, so does the data we receive, which enables us to provide greater value to our customers.
Visionary, Founder-Led Management Team. Our highly talented, customer-centric senior leadership, led by our co-founder and CEO, Henry Schuck, enables us to rapidly develop new products, move more quickly than our competition, and build our fast-paced, execution-oriented culture.
Our Market Opportunity
We estimate the TAM for our platform to be approximately $24 billion, based on data as of December 31, 2019.
We calculate our TAM by estimating the total number of companies by employee size for companies with 1,000+ employees, companies with 100 to 999 employees, and companies with 10 to 99 employees and applying the ACV to each respective company using internally generated data of actual customer spend by company size. For companies with 1,000+ employees, we have applied the average ACV of our top quartile of customers, who we believe have achieved broader implementation of our platform across their organizations. For companies with 100 to 999 employees and companies with 10 to 99 employees, we have applied an average ACV based on current spend for our customers in these bands. The aggregate calculated value represents our estimated TAM. Data for numbers of companies by employee count is from our ZoomInfo platform that we have identified as relevant prospects for our platform.
Our Growth Strategy
We intend to drive the growth of our business through the following strategies:
Continue to Acquire New Customers
Deliver Additional High-Value Solutions to Our Existing Customers
Drive Incremental Penetration Within Enterprises
Leverage Our Platform for Adjacent Use Cases such as Recruiting
Expand to International Markets
Selective Acquisitions to Complement Our Platform
Investment Risks
An investment in shares of our Class A common stock involves substantial risks and uncertainties that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Some of the more significant challenges and risks relating to an investment in our Company include, among other things, the following:
larger well-funded companies shifting their existing business models to become more competitive with us;
our ability to provide or adapt our platform for changes in laws and regulations or public perception, or changes in the enforcement of such laws, relating to data privacy;


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the effects of companies more effectively catering to our customers by offering more tailored products or platforms at lower costs;
adverse general economic and market conditions reducing spending on sales and marketing;
the effects of declining demand for sales and marketing subscription platforms;
our ability to improve our technology and keep up with new processes for data collection, organization, and cleansing;
our ability to provide a highly accurate, reliable, and comprehensive platform moving forward;
our reliance on third-party systems that we do not control to integrate with our system and our potential inability to continue to support integration;
our ability to adequately fund research and development potentially limiting introduction of new features, integrations, and enhancements;
our ability to attract new customers and expand existing subscriptions;
a decrease in participation in our contributory network or increased opt-out rates impacting the depth, breadth, and accuracy of our platform;
our failure to protect and maintain our brand and our ability to attract and retain customers;
our substantial indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial condition, our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, our ability to operate our business, our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, and our ability to meet our obligations under our outstanding indebtedness, and could divert our cash flow from operations for debt payments;
the parties to our stockholders agreement controlling us and their interests conflicting with ours or yours in the future; and
our being, upon the listing of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq, a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq rules and, as a result, qualifying for exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements, as a result of which you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
Please see “Risk Factors” for a discussion of these and other factors you should consider before making an investment in shares of our Class A common stock.
Organizational Structure
For a simplified diagram depicting our current organizational structure, see “Organizational Structure.” Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs, and consolidate the financial results, of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Prior to the completion of this offering:
ZoomInfo OpCo will effect a               -for-one reverse unit split;
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will form a new merger subsidiary with respect to each of the Blocker Companies through which certain of our Pre-IPO Shareholders hold their interests in ZoomInfo OpCo, each merger subsidiary will merge with and into the respective Blocker Companies in reverse-subsidiary mergers, and the surviving entities will merge with and into ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (such mergers, the “Blocker Mergers”), which Blocker Mergers will result in the Pre-IPO Shareholders receiving a combination of (i) shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and (ii) a cash amount in respect of reductions in such


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Pre-IPO Shareholders’ equity interests, based on the initial offering price of the Class A common stock (see “Organizational Structure—Blocker Mergers”);
certain pre-IPO owners will acquire interests in ZoomInfo HoldCo as a result of the merger of an entity that holds LLC Units on behalf of certain pre-IPO owners into ZoomInfo HoldCo (the “ZoomInfo HoldCo Contributions”) and the redemption of some LLC Units pursuant to which the holders of such LLC Units receive HoldCo Units; and
the limited liability company agreement of each of ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo will be amended and restated to, among other things, modify their capital structure by reclassifying the interests held by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders, the Continuing Class P Unitholders, and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, resulting in LLC Units, Class P Units of ZoomInfo OpCo, and HoldCo Units of HoldCo, respectively (such reclassification, the “Reclassification”).
We refer to the Reclassification, together with the Blocker Mergers and the ZoomInfo HoldCo Contributions, as the “Reorganization Transactions.” Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo, the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders (or certain permitted transferees) will have the right (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement) to exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo, the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders (or certain permitted transferees) will have the right (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement) to exchange their HoldCo Units for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. For a description of the amended and restated limited liability company agreements of ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo, please read “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions.”
The Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights, but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. The voting power afforded to holders of LLC Units or HoldCo Units by their shares of Class B common stock will be automatically and correspondingly reduced as they exchange LLC Units or HoldCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo or ZoomInfo HoldCo, as applicable. If at any time the ratio at which LLC Units or HoldCo Units are exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock changes from one-for-one as described under “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement” or “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement,” as applicable, the number of votes to which Class B common stockholders are entitled will be adjusted accordingly. Holders of shares of our Class B common stock will vote together with holders of our Class A common stock as a single class on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, except as otherwise required by law.
Our post-offering organizational structure is commonly referred to as an umbrella partnership-C-corporation (“UP-C”) structure. This organizational structure will allow our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders to retain their equity ownership in ZoomInfo OpCo, an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of LLC Units. Investors in this offering and the Pre-IPO Shareholders will, by contrast, hold their equity ownership in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., a Delaware corporation that is a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of shares of Class A common stock. Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold their equity ownership in ZoomInfo HoldCo, an entity classified as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of HoldCo Units. We believe that our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders will generally find it advantageous to continue to hold their equity interests in an entity that is not taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. One of these benefits is that future taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo that is allocated to our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders will be taxed on a


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flow-through basis and therefore will not be subject to corporate taxes at the entity level. Additionally, because our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders may redeem their LLC Units or HoldCo Units, respectively, for shares of our Class A common stock, our UP-C structure provides our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders with potential liquidity that holders of non-publicly traded limited liability companies are not typically afforded. We do not believe that our UP-C structure will give rise to any significant business or strategic benefit or detriment to us.
As described below under “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement,” prior to the completion of this offering, we will enter into a tax receivable agreement with certain of our pre-IPO owners (including pre-IPO owners of the Blocker Companies) that provides for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to such pre-IPO owners of 85% of the benefits, if any, that ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. or any member of its affiliated, consolidated, combined, or unitary tax group (collectively, the “ZoomInfo Tax Group”) is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of (i) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering, (ii) increases in the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of the ZoomInfo Tax Group as a result of sales or exchanges of LLC Units for shares of Class A common stock after this offering, and (iii) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes of the Blocker Companies (including the Blocker Companies’ allocable share of existing tax basis), and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement.
The amount of existing tax basis and the anticipated tax basis adjustments, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the tax receivable agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the price of shares of our Class A common stock at the time of the exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable, the amount of tax attributes, and the amount and timing of our income. We estimate the amount of existing tax basis with respect to which our pre-IPO owners will be entitled to receive payments under the tax receivable agreement (assuming all Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) on the date of this offering) is approximately $           million. Certain late payments under the tax receivable agreement generally will accrue interest at an uncapped rate equal to one year LIBOR (or its successor rate) plus 500 basis points. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement.”
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of HoldCo Units. ZoomInfo HoldCo is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of LLC Units. The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo that will be in effect at the time of this offering provides that certain distributions to cover the taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and the other holders of LLC Units and Class P Units will be made based upon assumed tax rates and other assumptions provided in the limited liability company agreement (such distributions, “tax distributions”). Additionally, in the event ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. declares any cash dividend, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will make distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., in an amount sufficient to cover such cash dividends declared by us. If ZoomInfo OpCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the other holders of LLC Units, HoldCo Units, and certain Class P Units will also be entitled to receive the respective equivalent pro rata distributions. We intend to enter into a tax sharing agreement with ZoomInfo HoldCo prior to the offering (the “tax sharing agreement”). Pursuant to the tax sharing agreement, ZoomInfo HoldCo will be required to make certain payments to us to enable us to pay taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and to meet our obligations under the tax receivable agreement.
Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo on its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the LLC Units held by our pre-IPO owners on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations.
The simplified diagram below depicts our organizational structure immediately following the consummation of the Offering Transactions (as described under “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions”) and the


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Reorganization Transactions (assuming an offering price of $           per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and no exercise of over-allotment option by the underwriters). Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, the information provided in this prospectus reflects the consummation of the Offering Transactions and the Reorganization Transactions. For additional detail, see “Organizational Structure.”
https://cdn.kscope.io/f430817747c4aac0cc27a1dd3f8e175e-summary2s.jpg
________________
(1)
Each share of Class B common stock will provide the holder ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Immediately following this offering, the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will collectively hold          %


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of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. For additional information, see “Organizational Structure—Organizational Structure Following this Offering and the Transactions” and “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock—Class B Common Stock.”
(2)
At the time of this offering,                    shares of Class A common stock would be issuable upon the exchange of                      Class P Units (assuming an offering price of $                     per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and assuming such Class P Units are fully vested) that are held by the Continuing Class P Unitholders. For additional information, see “Organizational Structure—Reclassification and Amendment and Restatement of Limited Liability Company Agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
(3)
ZoomInfo LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg, LLC) serves as the borrower under our first lien revolving credit facility and our first lien term loan facility, as amended (together, the “first lien credit facilities”), and our second lien term loan facility (together with the first lien credit facilities, the “secured credit facilities”). See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted, and currently intend, to rely on the following provisions of the JOBS Act that contain exceptions from disclosure and other requirements that otherwise are applicable to companies that conduct initial public offerings and file periodic reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). These provisions include, but are not limited to:
being permitted to present only two years of audited financial statements and selected financial data and only two years of related “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our periodic reports and registration statements, including this prospectus, subject to certain exceptions;
not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (“SOX”);
reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements, and registration statements, including in this prospectus;
not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the “PCAOB”) regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements; and
exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of:
the last day of the fiscal year that follows the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering;
the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion;
the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer,” as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”); and
the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt over a three-year period.
We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in this prospectus and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in our future filings with the SEC. As a result, the information that we provide to our Class A stockholders may be different than what you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
We have elected to avail ourselves of the provision of the JOBS Act that permits emerging growth companies to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. As a result, we will not be subject to new or revised accounting standards at the same time as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.


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For additional information, see the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock—We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.”
Our Sponsors
TA Associates
Founded in 1968, TA Associates is one of the most experienced global growth private equity firms in the world. TA Associates invests in growing companies with opportunities for sustained growth, and employs a long-term approach, utilizing its strategic resources, to help management teams build lasting value in great companies. With approximately $33.5 billion raised since inception and over five decades of experience, TA Associates offers its portfolio companies strategic guidance, global insight, strategic acquisition support, recruiting assistance, and a significant network of contacts, in addition to sound financial backing. The firm’s investment team is based in Boston, Menlo Park, London, Mumbai, and Hong Kong.
The Carlyle Group 
The Carlyle Group Inc. (NASDAQ: CG) is a global investment firm with deep industry expertise that deploys private capital across four business segments: Corporate Private Equity, Real Assets, Global Credit, and Investment Solutions. With $224 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 2019, The Carlyle Group’s purpose is to invest wisely and create value on behalf of its investors, portfolio companies, and the communities in which they invest. The Carlyle Group is a leading private equity investor having completed more than 650 transactions representing over $105 billion in equity investments, with particular strength in technology, business services, and communications sectors, which represent over 300 investments and $33 billion of equity invested. The Carlyle Group employs more than 1,775 people in 32 offices across six continents.
22C Capital
22C Capital is a private investment firm based in New York committed to delivering capital and critical resources to companies operating at the intersection of technology enablement and data analytics adoption. 22C Capital has a dedicated focus on the business services, healthcare, and financial services sectors. 22C Capital seeks to partner with experienced management teams to build companies that are leaders in their respective markets. 22C Capital’s operational and technology resources, including its affiliated data science organization, strive to deliver practical, real-world support to help convert these businesses’ challenges into opportunities and unlock their full potential. 22C executives have cross-disciplinary experience building and running market-leading data analytics companies, including co-founding and leading Capital IQ. 
 

After the completion of this offering, the parties to our stockholders agreement will beneficially own approximately     % of the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock (or     % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock), with each share of Class A common stock entitling the holder to one vote and each share of Class B common stock entitling the holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. As a result, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under these corporate governance standards, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is beneficially owned by an individual, group, or other company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance standards, including the requirements (1) that a majority of our board of directors consist of independent directors, (2) that our board of directors have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities, and (3) that our board of directors have a nominating and corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors


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with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities. Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of these corporate governance requirements. In the event that we cease to be a “controlled company” and our Class A common stock continues to be listed on the Nasdaq, we will be required to comply with these provisions within the applicable transition periods.
 
Our Corporate Information
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on November 14, 2019. Our principal executive office is located at 805 Broadway Street, Suite 900, Vancouver, Washington 98660, and our telephone number is (800) 914-1220. We maintain a website at www.zoominfo.com. The reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference only. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this prospectus and investors should not rely on such information in deciding whether to purchase shares of our common stock.
We own, or have rights to, trademarks, service marks, or trade names that we use in connection with the operation of our business, including ZOOMINFO and DISCOVERORG, which we consider important to our marketing activities. This prospectus also contains trademarks of other companies that to our knowledge are the property of their respective holders, and we do not intend our use or display of such marks to imply relationships with, or endorsements of us by, any other company.
Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, and trade names referred to in this prospectus are used without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks, and trade names. All trademarks, service marks, and trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.


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The Offering
Issuer
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
 
 
Class A common stock offered by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
     shares (plus up to an additional                      shares at the option of the underwriters to cover over-allotments).
 
 
Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock
We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to                      additional shares of our Class A common stock at the initial public offering price, less the underwriting discount.
 
 
Class A common stock outstanding after giving effect to this offering
     shares (or     shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Class A common stock outstanding after this offering assuming exchange of all LLC Units and HoldCo Units held by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, respectively
     shares (or     shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Voting power held by investors in this offering after giving effect to this offering
     % (or      % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Voting power held by our pre-IPO owners after giving effect to this offering
     % (or     % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
 
Use of proceeds
We estimate that the net proceeds to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. from this offering, after deducting the estimated underwriting discount, will be approximately $          million (or $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). ZoomInfo OpCo will reimburse ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for or bear all of the expenses payable by it in this offering. We estimate these offering expenses (excluding the underwriting discount) will be approximately $          million.
 
 
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. intends to use all of the net proceeds from this offering (including from any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock):
 
 
 
to purchase          newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo for approximately $          million (or              HoldCo Units for $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock), which in turn will purchase the same number of newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo;
 
 
 
to purchase          of LLC Units from certain Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders for approximately $          million (or               LLC Units for $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock); and
 
 


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to fund $          million of merger consideration payable to certain Pre-IPO Shareholders in connection with the Blocker Mergers (or $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
 
The foregoing purchases of HoldCo Units and LLC Units will be made at a price per unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. The number of outstanding LLC Units of ZoomInfo OpCo will equal the aggregate number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock. See “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions.”
 
 
 
We will only retain the net proceeds that are used to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will, in turn, be used to purchase newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo OpCo expects to use the proceeds it receives through ZoomInfo HoldCo from this offering:
 
 
 
to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units for approximately $         million, including accumulated but unpaid distributions and related prepayment premiums;
 
 
 
to repay approximately $          million aggregate principal amount of our second lien term loans, including related prepayment premiums and accrued interest; and
 
 
 
for general corporate purposes.
 
 
 
We will not retain any of the net proceeds used to purchase LLC Units from Pre-IPO Unitholders or to fund merger consideration for the Blocker Mergers. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Purchase of LLC Units.”
 
 
Voting rights
Each share of our Class A common stock entitles its holder to one vote on all matters to be voted on by stockholders generally.
The Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold all of the outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights, but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Holders of shares of our Class B common stock will vote together with holders of our Class A common stock as a single class on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, except as otherwise required by law. See “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock—Class B Common Stock.”
 
 


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Dividend policy
We have no current plans to pay dividends on our Class A common stock. The declaration, amount, and payment of any future dividends will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. Our board of directors may take into account general economic and business conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions, and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries (including ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo OpCo) to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. Holders of our Class B common stock do not have any right to receive dividends or to receive a distribution upon a liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.

ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which is a holding company and has no material assets other than a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo that will be in effect at the time of this offering provides that certain distributions to cover the taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and the other holders of LLC Units and Class P Units will be made based upon assumed tax rates and other assumptions provided in the limited liability company agreement (such distributions, “tax distributions”). Additionally, in the event ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. declares any cash dividend, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will make distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., in an amount sufficient to cover such cash dividends declared by us. If ZoomInfo OpCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the other holders of LLC Units, HoldCo Units, and certain Class P Units will also be entitled to receive the respective equivalent pro rata distributions. We intend to enter into the tax sharing agreement, pursuant to which ZoomInfo HoldCo will be required to make certain payments to us to enable us to pay taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and to meet our obligations under the tax receivable agreement.
 
 
 
We anticipate that cash received by ZoomInfo HoldCo may, in certain periods, exceed ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.’s obligations to pay its liabilities and make payments under the tax receivable agreement. We expect that ZoomInfo HoldCo will use any such excess cash from time to time: to acquire additional newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo at a per unit price determined by reference to the market value of the Class A common stock; to pay dividends, which may include special dividends, on our Class A common stock; to fund repurchases of our Class A common stock; or any combination of the foregoing. Our board of directors, in its sole discretion, will make any determination with respect to the use of any such excess cash. We also expect, if necessary, to undertake ameliorative actions, which may include pro rata or non-pro rata reclassifications, combinations, subdivisions, or adjustments of outstanding HoldCo Units or LLC Units, or declare a stock dividend on our Class A common stock of an aggregate number of additional newly issued shares that corresponds to the number of additional LLC Units that ZoomInfo HoldCo is acquiring, to maintain one-to-one parity between LLC Units and shares of Class A common stock. See “Dividend Policy.”
 
 


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Exchange rights of holders of LLC Units, Class P Units, and HoldCo Units
Prior to this offering, we will amend and restate the limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo so that the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders may, after the completion of this offering (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement), exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. Subject to certain restrictions, the holders of Class P Units will have the right to exchange their vested Class P Units into a number of shares of Class A common stock that will generally be equal to (a) the product of the number of vested Class P Units to be exchanged with a given per unit distribution threshold and then-current spread between the per share value of a LLC Unit at the time of the exchange (based on the public trading price of Class A common stock) and the per unit distribution threshold of such Class P Units divided by (b) the per unit value of a LLC Unit at the time of the exchange (based on the public trading price of Class A common stock). See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
 
The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo will provide that the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders may, after the completion of this offering (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement), exchange their HoldCo Units for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
 
 
Tax receivable agreement
Prior to the completion of this offering, we will enter into a tax receivable agreement with certain of our pre-IPO owners (including pre-IPO owners of the Blocker Companies) that provides for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to such pre-IPO owners of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of (i) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering, (ii) increases in the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of the ZoomInfo Tax Group as a result of sales or exchanges of LLC Units after this offering, and (iii) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes of the Blocker Companies (including the Blocker Companies’ allocable share of existing tax basis) and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement. These increases in existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments generated over time may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and, therefore, may reduce the amount of tax that the ZoomInfo Tax Group would otherwise be required to pay in the future. Actual tax benefits realized by the ZoomInfo Tax Group may differ from tax benefits calculated under the tax receivable agreement as a result of the use of certain assumptions in the tax receivable agreement, including the use of an assumed weighted-average state and local income tax rate to calculate tax benefits. This payment obligation is an obligation of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and not of ZoomInfo OpCo. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement.”


16


 
 
Risk factors
See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of risks you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock.
 
 
Certain U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences to non-U.S. holders
For a discussion of certain U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences that may be relevant to non-U.S. stockholders, see “Certain U.S. Federal Income and Estate Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders.”
 
 
Nasdaq trading symbol
“ZI.
In this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding and the other information based thereon does not reflect:
                    shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock from us;
                    shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exchange of                      LLC Units and                    HoldCo Units that will be held by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, respectively, immediately following this offering;
                    shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exchange of                      Class P Units (assuming an offering price of $                     per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and assuming such Class P Units are fully vested) that will be held by the Continuing Class P Unitholders immediately following this offering; or
                    shares of Class A common stock that may be granted under the 2020 Plan (as defined herein). See “Executive Compensation—Compensation Arrangements to be Adopted in Connection with this Offering—2020 Stock Incentive Plan.”


17


Summary Historical and Pro Forma Financial and Other Data
The following table presents the summary historical consolidated financial and other data for ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries and the summary pro forma combined and consolidated financial data for ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for the periods and at the dates indicated. Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo in its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the LLC Units held by our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of operations. The summary consolidated statements of operations data and summary consolidated statements of cash flows data presented below for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data presented below as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The summary historical consolidated financial and other data of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. has not been presented because ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a newly incorporated entity, has had no business transactions or activities to date, and had no assets or liabilities during the periods presented.
Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for any future period. You should read the summary historical consolidated financial data below, together with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto, the audited consolidated financial statements of Pre-Acquisition ZI and related notes thereto, and the audited consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and related notes thereto, each included elsewhere in this prospectus, as well as “Organizational Structure,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information,” “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” “Description of Certain Indebtedness,” and the other information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.
The summary unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated financial data of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. presented below have been derived from our unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary unaudited pro forma combined and consolidated statement of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2019 give effect to (i) the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI by ZoomInfo OpCo on February 1, 2019 (the “Zoom Information Acquisition”), (ii) the Reorganization Transactions, and (iii) the Offering Transactions as if they had occurred on January 1, 2019. The summary unaudited pro forma consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 gives effect to (i) the Reorganization Transactions and (ii) the Offering Transactions as if they had occurred on December 31, 2019. The following summary unaudited combined and consolidated pro forma financial data is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the operating results or financial position that would have occurred if the relevant transactions had been consummated on the dates indicated, nor is it indicative of future operating results or financial position. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information” and “Organizational Structure.”


18


 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Pro Forma
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions, except share amounts)
2018
 
2019
 
2019
Summary Statements of Operations Data(1):
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
144.3

 
$
293.3

 
$
Cost of service(2)
30.1

 
43.6

 
 
Amortization of acquired technology
7.7

 
25.0

 
 
Gross profit
106.5

 
224.7

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses(2)
79.9

 
188.6

 
 
Income from operations
26.6

 
36.1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense, net
58.2

 
102.4

 
 
Loss on debt extinguishment

 
18.2

 
 
Other (income) expense, net(3)
(0.1
)
 

 
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
(31.5
)
 
(84.5
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benefit from income taxes
2.9

 
6.5

 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(78.0
)
 
$
Less: Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
 
 
$
 
$
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pro forma:
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss and per share information (unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
 
 
 
 
$
Net loss
 
 
 
 
$
Basic and diluted net loss per share
 
 
 
 
$
Weighted average shares outstanding—basic and diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
9.0

 
$
41.4

 
$
Total assets
591.0

 
1,561.9

 
 
Long-term debt (including current portion)
633.7

 
1,203.3

 
 
Total liabilities
710.1

 
1,575.5

 
 
Temporary equity(4)

 
200.2

 
 
Permanent equity
(119.1
)
 
(213.8
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary Statements of Cash Flows Data:
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
43.8

 
$
44.4

 
 
Net cash used in investing activities
(13.1
)
 
(736.7
)
 
 
Net cash provided by used in financing activities
(29.9
)
 
725.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


19


 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2019
Other Data(5):
 
 
 
Allocated Combined Receipts(6)
$
241.2

 
$
336.0

Adjusted Operating Income(7)
$
83.6

 
$
167.1

Adjusted Operating Income Margin(7)
57
%
 
51
%
Adjusted EBITDA(8)
$
86.2

 
$
173.2

__________________
(1)
Historical results of ZoomInfo OpCo for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019 do not reflect the results of Pre-Acquisition ZI prior to the Zoom Information Acquisition on February 1, 2019.
 
Year Ended
December 31, 2018
 
Year Ended
December 31, 2019
($ in millions)
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Pre-Acquisition ZI
 
ZoomInfo OpCo
(DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC)
 
Pre-Acquisition ZI(a)
Revenue
$
144.3

 
$
72.5

 
$
293.3

 
$
9.7

Income from operations
26.6

 
(23.1
)
 
36.1

 
1.7

Net income (loss)
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(27.5
)
 
$
(78.0
)
 
$
0.8

__________________
(a)
Reflects January 2019 results for Pre-Acquisition ZI.
(2)
Includes equity-based compensation expense, as follows:
 
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
Cost of service
$
8.3

 
$
4.0

Sales and marketing
15.8

 
11.2

Research and development
1.1

 
4.7

General and administrative
7.5

 
5.2

Total equity-based compensation expense
$
32.7

 
$
25.1

(3)
Primarily represents foreign exchange remeasurement gains and losses.
(4)
Consists of 207,000,000 Series A Preferred Units issued on February 1, 2019 in connection with the Zoom Information Acquisition. We expect to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units with proceeds from this offering for approximately $          million, including accumulated but unpaid distributions and related prepayment premiums.
(5)
In addition to our results determined in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), we believe certain non-GAAP measures are useful in evaluating our operating performance. These measures include, but are not limited to, Allocated Combined Receipts, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted Operating Income Margin, and Adjusted EBITDA, which are used by management in making operating decisions, allocating financial resources, and internal planning and forecasting, and for business strategy purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information is useful to investors because it eliminates certain items that affect period-over-period comparability and it provides consistency with past financial performance and additional information about our underlying results and trends by excluding certain items that may not be indicative of our business, results of operations, or outlook.
Non-GAAP financial measures are not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the comparable GAAP measures, but rather as supplemental information to our business results. This information should be read only in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. There are limitations to these non-GAAP financial measures because they are not prepared in accordance with GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies due to potential differences in methods of calculation and items or events being adjusted. In addition, other companies may use different measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of our non-GAAP financial measures as tools for comparison. A reconciliation is provided below for each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP.
(6)
We define Allocated Combined Receipts as the combined receipts of our Company and companies that we have acquired allocated to the period of service delivery. We calculate Allocated Combined Receipts as the sum of (i) revenue, (ii) revenue recorded by acquired companies prior to our acquisitions of them, and (iii) the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue related to services billed by an acquired company prior to its acquisition. Management uses this measure to evaluate organic growth of the business period over period, as if the Company had operated as a single entity and excluding the impact of acquisitions or adjustments due to purchase accounting. Organic growth in current


20


and future periods is driven by sales to new customers and the addition of additional subscriptions and functionality to existing customers, offset by customer cancellations or reduced subscriptions upon renewal. We believe that it is important to evaluate growth on this organic basis, as it is an indication of the success of our services from the customers’ perspective that is not impacted by corporate events such as acquisitions or the fair value estimates of acquired unearned revenue. We believe this measure is useful to investors because it illustrates the trends in our organic revenue growth and allows investors to analyze the drivers of revenue on the same basis as management.
The following table presents a reconciliation of Allocated Combined Receipts for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
Revenue
$
144.3

 
$
293.3

Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue(a)
2.9

 
32.2

Pre-Acquisition ZI revenue(b)
72.5

 
9.7

Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue recorded by Pre-Acquisition ZI(c)
14.6

 
0.1

Pre-acquisition revenue of other acquired companies(d)
6.9

 
0.6

Allocated Combined Receipts
$
241.2

 
$
336.0

Growth
 
 
39
%
__________________
(a)
Represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by an acquired company, including Pre-Acquisition ZI, prior to our acquisition of that company.  These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition. 
(b)
Figures include revenue recognized by Pre-Acquisition ZI for the periods prior to our acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI.
(c)
Primarily represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by a predecessor entity, prior to the acquisition of that predecessor entity by Pre-Acquisition ZI. These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on Pre-Acquisition ZI management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed, prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition. 
(d)
We acquired the assets of NeverBounce in September 2018. Additionally, Pre-Acquisition ZI acquired Datanyze in September 2018. Figures include revenue recognized by these entities for the periods presented prior to their respective acquisitions.
(7)
We define Adjusted Operating Income as income from operations plus (i) impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue, (ii) amortization of acquired technology and other acquired intangibles, (iii) equity-based compensation, (iv) restructuring and transaction-related expenses, and (v) integration costs and acquisition-related compensation. We exclude the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue and amortization of acquired technology and other acquired intangibles, as well as equity-based compensation, because these are non-cash expenses or non-cash fair value adjustments and we believe that excluding these items provides meaningful supplemental information regarding performance and ongoing cash generation potential. We exclude restructuring and transaction-related expenses, as well as integration costs and acquisition-related compensation, because such expenses are episodic in nature and have no direct correlation to the cost of operating our business on an ongoing basis. Adjusted Operating Income is presented because it is used by management to evaluate our financial performance and for planning and forecasting purposes. Additionally, we believe that it and similar measures are widely used by securities analysts and investors as a means of evaluating a company’s operating performance. Adjusted Operating Income should not be considered as an alternative to operating income as an indicator of operating performance. We define Adjusted Operating Income Margin as Adjusted Operating Income divided by the sum of revenue and impacts of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue.


21


The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted Operating Income and Adjusted Operating Income Margin for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
Net loss
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(78.0
)
Provision for taxes
(2.9
)
 
(6.5
)
Interest expense, net
58.2

 
102.4

Loss on debt extinguishment

 
18.2

Other (income) expense, net(a)
(0.1
)
 

Income from operations
26.6

 
36.1

Impacts of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue(b)
2.9

 
32.2

Amortization of acquired technology
7.7

 
25.0

Amortization of other acquired intangibles
7.0

 
17.6

Equity-based compensation
32.7

 
25.1

Restructuring and transaction-related expenses(c)
3.6

 
15.6

Integration costs and acquisition-related compensation(d)
3.2

 
15.5

Adjusted Operating Income
$
83.6

 
$
167.1

Adjusted Operating Income Margin
57
%
 
51
%
__________________
(a)
Primarily represents foreign exchange remeasurement gains and losses.
(b)
Represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by an acquired company, including Pre-Acquisition ZI, prior to our acquisition of that company. These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition.
(c)
Represents costs directly associated with acquisition or disposal activities, including employee severance and termination benefits, contract termination fees and penalties, and other exit or disposal costs. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including professional fees, severance and acceleration of payments for terminated employees, and accretion related to deferred consideration. For the year ended December 31, 2018, this expense related primarily to Carlyle’s investment in us.
(d)
Represents costs directly associated with integration activities for acquisitions and acquisition-related compensation, which includes transaction bonuses and retention awards. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to activities resulting from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including consulting and professional services costs, cash vesting payments (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our audited consolidated financial statement included elsewhere in this prospectus), and transaction bonuses and other compensation, as well as expense related to retention awards grants from the Company’s acquisitions of RainKing, NeverBounce, and Komiko. For the year ended December 31, 2018, these expenses related primarily to retention awards related to our acquisition of RainKing and transaction bonuses related to Carlyle’s investment in us.
(8)
EBITDA is defined as earnings before debt-related costs, including interest and loss on debt extinguishment, provision for taxes, depreciation, and amortization. Management further adjusts EBITDA to exclude certain items of a significant or unusual nature, including other (income) expense, net, impact of certain non-cash items, such as fair value of adjustments to acquired unearned revenue, and equity-based compensation, restructuring and transaction-related expenses, and integration costs and acquisition-related compensation. We exclude these items because these are non-cash expenses or non-cash fair value adjustments, which we do not consider indicative of performance and ongoing cash generation potential or are episodic in nature and have no direct correlation to the cost of operating our business on an ongoing basis. Adjusted EBITDA is presented because it is used by management to evaluate our financial performance and for planning and forecasting purposes. Additionally, we believe that it and similar measures are widely used by securities analysts and investors as a means of evaluating a company’s operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity or as an alternative to operating income or net income as indicators of operating performance.


22


The following table presents a reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
($ in millions)
2018
 
2019
Net loss
$
(28.6
)
 
$
(78.0
)
Interest expense, net
58.2

 
102.4

Loss on debt extinguishment

 
18.2

Provision for taxes
(2.9
)
 
(6.5
)
Depreciation and amortization
2.6

 
6.1

Amortization of acquired technology
7.7

 
25.0

Amortization of other acquired intangibles
7.0

 
17.6

EBITDA
43.9

 
84.8

Other (income) expense, net(a)
(0.1
)
 

Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue(b)
2.9

 
32.2

Equity-based compensation
32.7

 
25.1

Restructuring and transaction-related expenses(c)
3.6

 
15.6

Integration costs and acquisition-related compensation(d)
3.2

 
15.5

Adjusted EBITDA
$
86.2

 
$
173.2

__________________
(a)
Primarily represents foreign exchange remeasurement gains and losses.
(b)
Represents the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue relating to services billed by an acquired company prior to its acquisition.  These adjustments represent the difference between the revenue recognized based on management’s estimate of fair value of acquired unearned revenue and the receipts billed prior to the acquisition, less revenue recognized prior to the acquisition.
(c)
Represents costs directly associated with acquisition or disposal activities, including employee severance and termination benefits, contract termination fees and penalties, and other exit or disposal costs. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including professional fees, severance and acceleration of payments for terminated employees, and accretion related to deferred consideration. For the year ended December 31, 2018, this expense related primarily to Carlyle’s investment in us.
(d)
Represents costs directly associated with integration activities for acquisitions and acquisition-related compensation, which includes transaction bonuses and retention awards. For the year ended December 31, 2019, this expense related primarily to activities resulting from the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI, including consulting and professional services costs, cash vesting payments (see Note 4 – Business Combinations to our audited consolidated financial statement included elsewhere in this prospectus), and transaction bonuses and other compensation, as well as expense related to retention awards grants from our prior acquisitions of RainKing and NeverBounce. For the year ended December 31, 2018, these expenses related primarily to retention awards related to our acquisition of RainKing and transaction bonuses related to Carlyle’s investment in us.


23


RISK FACTORS
An investment in shares of our Class A common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the following information about these risks, together with the other information contained in this prospectus, before investing in shares of our Class A common stock. Any of the following risks could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or prospects, and could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, results of operations, financial condition, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Larger and more well-funded companies with access to significant resources, large amounts of data or data collection methods, and sophisticated technologies may shift their business model to become competitive with us.
Companies in related industries, such as CRM, business software, or advertising, including Salesforce.com, Oracle, Google, or Microsoft/LinkedIn, may choose to compete with us in the B2B sales and marketing intelligence space and would immediately have access to greater resources and brand recognition. We cannot anticipate how rapidly such a potential competitor could create products or services that would take significant market share from us or even surpass our products or services in quality, in at least some respect. If a large, well-funded competitor entered our space, it could reduce the demand for our products and services and reduce the amount we could demand for subscription renewals or upgrades from existing customers, and the amount we could demand from new subscribers to our products and services, reducing our revenue and profitability.
In addition, many of our potential competitors could have competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, significant install bases, broader geographic scope, and larger sales and marketing budgets and resources. Many of our potential competitors may have established relationships with independent software vendors, partners, and customers, greater customer experience resources, greater resources to make acquisitions, lower labor and development costs, larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios, and substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources. New competitors or alliances among competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share due to these or other factors.
Mergers and acquisitions in the technology industry, such as Microsoft’s acquisition of LinkedIn, increase the likelihood that our competitors in the future will be larger and have more resources. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions in an evolving industry. Companies resulting from these possible consolidations may create more compelling product offerings and be able to offer more attractive pricing options, making it more difficult for us to compete effectively.
Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements, or pricing pressure. As a result, even if our products and services are more effective than the products and services that our competitors offer, potential customers might select competitive products and services in lieu of our services.
Changes in laws, regulations, and public perception concerning data privacy, or changes in the patterns of enforcement of existing laws and regulations, could impact our ability to efficiently gather, process, update, and/or provide some or all of the information we currently provide or the ability of our customers and users to use some or all of our products or services.
Our products and services rely heavily on the collection and use of information to provide effective insights to our customers and users. In recent years, there has been an increase in attention to and regulation of data protection and data privacy across the globe, including the FTC’s increasingly active approach to enforcing data privacy in the United States, as well as the enactment of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which took effect in May 2018, and the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which took effect in January 2020. Other data privacy or data protection laws or regulations are under consideration in other jurisdictions. Laws such as these give rise to an increasingly complex set of compliance obligations on us, as well as on many of our customers. These laws impose restrictions on our ability to gather personal data and provide such personal data to our customers, provide


24


individuals with the ability to opt out of such personal data collection, and impose obligations on our ability to pass data to our customers, as well as place downstream obligations on our customers relating to their use of the information we provide.
Certain of our activities could be found by a government or regulatory authority to be noncompliant or become noncompliant in the future with one or more data protection or data privacy laws, even if we have implemented and maintained a strategy that we believe to be compliant. New interpretations of existing laws or regulations could be inconsistent with our interpretations (such as our analysis of the extraterritorial applicability of GDPR to us), increase our compliance burden, make it more difficult to comply, and/or increase our risk of regulatory investigations and fines. For example, we are subject to complex and evolving regulatory requirements regarding the collection and use of personal data, including changes under CCPA (and other recently enacted and upcoming state laws) related to selling of personal data, and, among others, introducing opt-out rights and data broker registration obligations.
These complex laws may be implemented in a non-uniform way in many jurisdictions around the world and we may not be aware of every development that impacts our business. These laws may also require us to make additional changes to our services in order for us or our customers to comply with such legal requirements and may also increase our potential liability as a result of higher potential penalties for noncompliance. These new or proposed laws and regulations are subject to differing interpretations and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions. These and other legal requirements could reduce our ability to gather personal data used in our products and services. They could reduce demand for our services, require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to store, transfer and process personal data or, in some cases, impact our ability or our customers’ ability to offer our services in certain locations, to deploy our solutions, to reach current and prospective customers, or to derive insights from data globally.
The costs of complying with existing or new data privacy or data protection laws and regulations may limit our ability to gather personal data needed to provide our products and services, the use and adoption of our products and services, reduce overall demand for our products and services, make it more difficult for us to meet expectations from or commitments to customers and users, lead to significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for noncompliance, impact our reputation, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business.
Furthermore, the uncertain and shifting regulatory environment and trust climate may cause concerns regarding data privacy and may cause our vendors, customers, users, or our customers’ customers to resist providing the data necessary to allow us to offer our services to our customers and users effectively, or could prompt individuals to opt out of our collection of their personal data. Even the perception that the privacy of personal data is not satisfactorily protected or does not meet regulatory requirements could discourage prospective customers from subscribing to our products or services or discourage current customers from renewing their subscriptions.
Compliance with any of the foregoing laws and regulations can be costly and can delay or impede the development of new products or services. We may incur substantial fines if we violate any laws or regulations relating to the collection or use of personal data. For example, GDPR imposes sanctions for violations up to the greater of €20 million and 4% of worldwide gross annual revenue and CCPA allows for fines of up to $7,500 per violation (affected individual). Our actual or alleged failure to comply with applicable privacy or data security laws, regulations, and policies, or to protect personal data, could result in enforcement actions and significant penalties against us, which could result in negative publicity or costs, subject us to claims or other remedies, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our products and services. Further, we may be subject to additional risks associated with data security breaches or other incidents, in particular because certain data privacy laws, including CCPA, grant individuals a private right of action arising from certain data security incidents. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, and other claims and penalties, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products and services, which could harm our business.
Since the enactment of CCPA, new privacy and data security laws have been proposed in more than half of the states in the United States and in the U.S. Congress, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the


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United States, which trend may accelerate depending on the results of the 2020 U.S. presidential election. We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, and information security in the United States and other jurisdictions, and we cannot determine the impact such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. We could be subject to legal claims, government action, or harm to our reputation or incur significant remediation costs if we experience a security breach or our practices fail, or are seen as failing, to comply with our policies or with applicable laws concerning personally identifiable information.
Concern regarding our use of the personal data collected on our websites or collected when performing our services could keep prospective customers from subscribing to our services. Industry-wide incidents or incidents with respect to our websites, including misappropriation of third-party information, security breaches, or changes in industry standards, regulations, or laws, could deter people from using the internet or our websites to conduct transactions that involve the transmission of confidential information, which could harm our business.
We also receive data from third-party vendors (e.g., other data brokers). We are ultimately unable to verify with complete certainty the source of such data, how it was received, and that such information was collected and is being shared with us in compliance with all applicable data privacy laws.
We experience competition from companies that offer technologies designed to allow companies to better use and extract insights from existing, internal databases, or free information resources and from technologies that are designed to allow companies to gather and aggregate data from online sources.
The market for sales, marketing, and recruiting technology and data requires continuous innovation. It is highly competitive, rapidly evolving, and fragmented. There are low barriers to entry, shifting customer needs and strategies, and frequent introductions of new technologies and of new products and services. Many prospective customers have invested substantial resources to implement, and gained substantial familiarity with, competing solutions and therefore may be reluctant or unwilling to migrate from their current solution to ours. Many prospective customers may not appreciate differences in quality between our products and services and those of lower-priced competitors, and many prospects and current customers may not learn the best ways to use our products and services, making them less likely to obtain them or renew their subscriptions. New technologies and products may be or become better or more attractive to current or prospective customers than our products and services in one or more ways. Many current or prospective customers may find competing products or services more attractive if we do not keep pace with market innovation, and many may choose or switch to competing products even if do our best to innovate and provide superior products and services.
Our current competitors include:
free online and offline sources of information on companies and business professionals, including government records, telephone books, company websites, and open online databases of business professionals, such as LinkedIn Sales Navigator, D&B Sales & Marketing Solutions, TechTarget, and Infogroup;
our current and potential customers’ internal and homegrown business contact databases;
when used in conjunction with the foregoing or when additionally providing third-party sales and marketing data, predictive analytics and customer data platform technologies;
when used in conjunction with the foregoing or when additionally providing third-party sales and marketing data, sales and marketing vendors, which may specialize in appointment setting, online ad targeting, email marketing, or other outsource go-to-market functions;
other vendors of sales automation software;
other providers of third-party company attributes, technology attributes, and business contact information;
other providers of online content consumption data for predictive sales and marketing analytics; and
user-based networks of companies and/or business professionals.


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Providers of direct “web-scraping” technology or databases built on web-scraping can provide low-cost alternatives to our products and services, and many of our current and prospective customers may choose a lower-cost alternative even if our products and services are superior, either despite the difference in quality or because the customer cannot readily determine that there is a difference in quality, especially if we fail to adequately demonstrate the value of our products and services to existing customers.
Companies with large databases that are currently not commercially available could enter the market and rapidly become new competitors. The existence of such potential competitors may not be readily apparent today, and such companies may become significant low-cost or no-cost competitors and adversely impact the demand for our solutions and services or limit our growth potential.
These risks could be exacerbated by weak economic conditions and lower customer spending on sales and marketing. Weakened economic conditions could also disproportionately increase the likelihood that any given current or prospective customer would choose a lower-price alternative even if our products or services were superior. Some current and potential customers, particularly large organizations, have elected in the past, and may in the future, elect to rely on internal and homegrown databases, develop, or acquire their own software, programs, tools, and internal data quality teams that would reduce or eliminate the demand for our products and services. If demand for our platform declines for any of these or other reasons, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Adverse or weakened general economic and market conditions may reduce spending on sales and marketing technology and information, which could harm our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows depend on the overall demand for and use of technology and information for sales, marketing, and recruiting, which depends in part on the amount of spending allocated by our customers or potential customers on sales and marketing technology and information. This spending depends on worldwide economic and geopolitical conditions. The U.S. and other key international economies have experienced cyclical downturns from time to time in which economic activity was impacted by falling demand for a variety of goods and services, restricted credit, poor liquidity, reduced corporate profitability, volatility in credit, equity, and foreign exchange markets, bankruptcies, and overall economic uncertainty. These economic conditions can arise suddenly, and the full impact of such conditions often remains uncertain. In addition, geopolitical developments, such as potential trade wars, can increase levels of political and economic unpredictability globally and increase the volatility of global financial markets. Further actions or inactions of the U.S. or other major national governments, including the United Kingdom’s 2016 vote in favor of exiting the European Union (“Brexit”), may also impact economic conditions, which could result in financial market disruptions or an economic downturn.
Concerns about the systemic impact of a recession (in the United States or globally), energy costs, geopolitical issues, or the availability and cost of credit could lead to increased market volatility, decreased consumer confidence, and diminished growth expectations in the U.S. economy and abroad, which in turn could affect the rate of information technology spending and could adversely affect our customers’ ability or willingness to purchase our services, delay prospective customers’ purchasing decisions, reduce the value or duration of their subscription contracts, or affect attrition rates, all of which could adversely affect our future sales and operating results. Some of our users may view a subscription to our platform as a discretionary purchase, and our paying users may reduce their discretionary spending on our platform during an economic downturn. In particular, spending patterns of SMBs are difficult to predict and are sensitive to the general economic climate, the economic outlook specific to SMBs, the then-current level of profitability experienced by SMBs and overall consumer confidence. In addition, weak economic conditions can result in customers seeking to utilize free or lower-cost information that is available from alternative sources. Prolonged economic slowdowns may result in requests to renegotiate existing contracts on less advantageous terms to us than those currently in place, payment defaults on existing contracts, or non-renewal at the end of a contract term.
During weak economic times, there is an increased risk that one or more of our paying customers will file for bankruptcy protection, which may harm our revenue, profitability, and results of operations. We also face risk from international paying customers that file for bankruptcy protection in foreign jurisdictions, particularly given that the application of foreign bankruptcy laws may be more difficult to predict. In addition, we may determine that the cost


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of pursuing any creditor claim outweighs the recovery potential of such claim. As a result, weak economic times could harm our business, revenue, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
Our product offerings are also concentrated by varying degrees across different industries, particularly the software and business services industries in the United States, where we derived approximately 40% and 28% of our revenue in 2018 and 38% and 27% of our revenue in 2019, respectively. Our customer base suffers when financial markets experience volatility, illiquidity, and disruption, which has occurred in the past and may reoccur, and the potential for increased and continuing disruptions going forward present considerable risks to our business and revenue.
We generate revenue from sales of subscriptions to our platform and data, and any decline in demand for the types of technologies and information we offer would negatively impact our business.
We derive 99% of our revenue from subscription services and expect to continue to generate revenue from the sale of subscriptions to our platform and data. As a result, the continued use of telephones and email as a primary means of B2B sales, marketing, and recruiting, and the continued use of internet cloud-based platforms to access telephone, email, and related information for such purposes, is critical to our future growth and success. If the sales and marketing information market fails to grow, or grows more slowly than we currently anticipate, or if there is a decrease in the use of telephones and email as primary means of B2B communication, demand for our platform and data would be negatively affected.
Changes in user preferences for sales and marketing platforms may have a disproportionately greater impact on us than if we offered disparate products and services. Demand for sales and marketing platforms in general, and our platform and data in particular, is affected by a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control. Some of these potential factors include:
awareness and acceptance of the sales and marketing platform category generally, and the growth, contraction and evolution of the category;
availability of products and services that compete with ours;
brand recognition;
pricing;
ease of adoption and use;
performance, features, and user experience, and the development and acceptance of new features, integrations, and capabilities;
customer support;
accessibility across several devices, operating system, and applications;
integration with CRM and other related technologies; and
the potential for the development of new systems and protocols for B2B communication.
The market is subject to rapidly changing user demand and preference trends. If we fail to successfully predict and address these changes and trends, meet user demands or achieve more widespread market acceptance of our platform and data, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
If we fail to maintain and improve our methods and technologies, or anticipate new methods or technologies, for data collection, organization, and cleansing, competing products and services could surpass ours in depth, breadth, or accuracy of our data or in other respects.
Current or future competitors may seek to develop new methods and technologies for more efficiently gathering, cataloging, or updating business information, which could allow a competitor to create a product comparable or superior to ours, or that takes substantial market share from us, or that creates or maintains databases at a lower cost that we experience. We can expect continuous improvements in computer hardware, network operating systems, programming tools, programming languages, operating systems, data matching, data filtering, data predicting, and other database


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technologies and the use of the internet. These improvements, as well as changes in customer preferences or regulatory requirements, may require changes in the technology used to gather and process our data. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to:
internally develop and implement new and competitive technologies;
use leading third-party technologies effectively; and
respond to advances in data collection, cataloging, and updating.
If we fail to respond to changes in data technology competitors may be able to develop products and services that will take market share from us, and the demand for our products and services, the delivery of our products and services, or our market reputation could be adversely affected.
If we are not able to obtain and maintain accurate, comprehensive, or reliable data, we could experience reduced demand for our products and services.
Our success depends on our clients’ confidence in the depth, breadth, and accuracy of our data. The task of establishing and maintaining accurate data is challenging and expensive. The depth, breadth, and accuracy of our data differentiates us from our competitors. Our standard contract with customers includes a quality guarantee pursuant to which a customer would have the right to terminate its subscription and we could be obligated to reimburse certain payments if the accuracy of our data were to fall below a certain threshold. If our data, including the data we obtain from third parties and our data extraction, cleaning, and insights, are not current, accurate, comprehensive, or reliable, it would increase the likelihood of negative customer experiences, which in turn would reduce the likelihood of customers renewing or upgrading their subscriptions and harm our reputation, making it more difficult to obtain new customers. In addition, if we are no longer able to maintain our high level of accuracy, we may face legal claims by our customers which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our business depends upon the interoperability of our platform with third-party systems that we do not control.
Our technologies that allow our platform to interoperate with various third-party applications (which we call “integrations”) are critically important to our business. Many of our customers use our integrations to access our data from within, or send data to, CRM, marketing automation, applicant tracking, sales enablement, and other systems, including Salesforce.com, Marketo, HubSpot, Microsoft Dynamics, Oracle Sales Cloud, and a variety of other commonly used tools. The functionality of these integrations depends upon access to these systems, which is not within our control. For instance, approximately 32% of our customers use our Salesforce.com integration. Some of our competitors own, develop, operate, or distribute CRM and similar systems or have material business relationships with companies that own, develop, operate, or distribute CRM and similar systems that our platform integrates into. Moreover, some of these competitors have inherent advantages developing products and services that more tightly integrate with their CRM and similar systems or those of their business partners. In addition, companies that already operate CRM and similar systems may choose to become competitive with ZoomInfo. See also “—Larger and more well-funded companies with access to significant resources, large amounts of data or data collection methods and sophisticated technologies may shift their business model to become competitive with us.”
Third-party systems are constantly evolving, it is difficult to predict the challenges that we may encounter in developing our platform for use in conjunction with such third-party systems, and we may not be able to modify our integrations to assure its compatibility with the systems of other third parties following any of their changes to their systems. Some operators of CRM and similar systems may cease to permit our access or the integration of our platform to their systems. If Salesforce.com were to refuse to permit our integration to access its APIs, this integration would not function, and our customers’ experience would be hampered. Without a convenient way for our customers to integrate our products and services with products and services such as Salesforce.com, current customers may be less likely to renew or upgrade their subscriptions, prospective customers may be less likely to acquire subscriptions, or our products and services may not command the prices that we anticipate. In addition, some of our competitors may be able to disrupt the operations or compatibility of our platform with their systems, or exert strong business influence on our ability to, and terms on which we, integrate our platform. As our respective platforms and systems evolve, we expect this level of competition to increase. Should any of our competitors modify their systems in a manner that degrades the


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functionality of our platform or gives preferential treatment to competitive platforms or products, whether to enhance their competitive position or for any other reason, the interoperability of our platform with these systems could decrease and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
Our ability to introduce new features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements is dependent on adequate research and development resources. If we do not adequately fund our research and development efforts, or if our research and development investments do not translate into material enhancements to our products and services, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition may be harmed.
To remain competitive, we must continue to develop new features, integrations, and capabilities to our products and services. This is particularly true as we further expand and diversify our capabilities to address additional applications and markets. Maintaining adequate research and development resources, such as the appropriate personnel and development technology, to meet the demands of the market is essential. If we are unable to develop features, integrations, and capabilities internally due to certain constraints, such as employee turnover, lack of management ability, or a lack of other research and development resources, our business may be harmed.
Moreover, research and development projects can be technically challenging and expensive. The nature of these research and development cycles may cause us to experience delays between the time we incur expenses associated with research and development and the time we are able to offer compelling features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements and generate revenue, if any, from such investment. Anticipated demand for a feature, integration, capability, or enhancement we are developing could decrease after the development cycle has commenced, and we would nonetheless be unable to avoid substantial costs associated with the development of any such feature, integration, capability, or enhancement. Additionally, we may experience difficulties with software development, design, or marketing that could affect the length of these research and development cycles that could further delay or prevent our development, introduction, or implementation of features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements. If we expend a significant amount of resources on research and development and our efforts do not lead to the successful introduction or improvement of features, integrations, and capabilities that are competitive, it could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Further, our competitors may expend more on their respective research and development programs or may be acquired by larger companies that would allocate greater resources to our competitors’ research and development programs or our competitors may be more efficient in their research and development activities. Our failure to maintain adequate research and development resources or to compete effectively with the research and development programs of our competitors would give an advantage to such competitors and may harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
If we are unable to attract new customers and expand subscriptions of current customers, our revenue growth and profitability will be harmed.
To increase our revenue and achieve and maintain profitability, we must attract new customers and grow the subscriptions of existing customers. Our go-to-market efforts are intended to identify and attract prospective customers and convert them into paying customers, including the conversion of users of our Community Edition product to paying customers. In addition, we seek to expand existing customer subscriptions by adding new users, additional data entitlements, or additional products or services, including through expanding the adoption of our platform into other departments within customers. We do not know whether we will continue to achieve similar client acquisition and customer subscription growth rates in the future as we have in the past. Numerous factors may impede our ability to add new customers and grow existing customer subscriptions, including our failure to attract and effectively train new sales and marketing personnel despite increasing our sales efforts, to retain and motivate our current sales and marketing personnel, to develop or expand relationships with partners, to successfully deploy new features, integrations and capabilities of our products and services, to provide quality customer experience, or to ensure the effectiveness of our go-to-market programs. Additionally, increasing our sales to large organizations (both existing and prospective customers) requires increasingly sophisticated and costly sales and account management efforts targeted at senior management and other personnel. If our efforts to sell to organizations are not successful or do not generate additional revenue, our business will suffer. See also “—Failure to effectively expand our sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase the number of organizations on our platform and achieve broader market acceptance of our platform.”


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Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends in large part on our ability to continually enhance and improve our platform and the features, integrations, and capabilities we offer, and to introduce compelling new features, integrations, and capabilities that reflect the changing nature of our market to maintain and improve the quality and value of our products and services, which depends on our ability to continue investing in research and development and our successful execution and our efforts to improve and enhance our platform. The success of any enhancement to our platform depends on several factors, including timely completion and delivery, competitive pricing, adequate quality testing, integration with existing technologies, and overall market acceptance. Any new features, integrations, or capabilities that we develop may not be introduced in a timely or cost-effective manner, may contain errors, failures, vulnerabilities, or bugs or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate significant revenue. If we are unable to successfully develop new features, integrations, and capabilities to enhance our platform to meet the requirements of current and prospective customers or otherwise gain widespread market acceptance, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be harmed.
Moreover, our business is subscription-based, and therefore our customers are not obligated to and may not renew their subscriptions after their existing subscriptions expire or may renew at a lower price, including if such customers choose to reduce their data access rights under their subscription, reduce the products or services to which they have access, or reduce their number of users. Most of our subscriptions are sold for a one-year term, though some organizations purchase a multi-year subscription plan. While many of our subscriptions provide for automatic renewal, our customers may opt-out of automatic renewal and customers have no obligation to renew a subscription after the expiration of the term. Our customers may or may not renew their subscriptions as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our products and services, decreases in the number of users at the organization, our pricing or pricing structure, the pricing or capabilities of the products and services offered by our competitors, the effects of economic conditions, or reductions in our paying customers’ spending levels. In addition, our customers may renew for fewer subscriptions, renew for shorter contract lengths if they were previously on multi-year contracts, or switch to lower cost offerings of our products and services. It is difficult to predict attrition rates given our varied customer base of enterprise, mid-market, and SMB customers. Our attrition rates may increase or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customer dissatisfaction with our services, customers’ spending levels, mix of customer base, decreases in the number of users at our customers, competition, pricing increases, or changing or deteriorating general economic conditions. If customers do not renew their subscriptions or renew on less favorable terms or fail to add more users, or if we fail to expand subscriptions of existing customers, our revenue may decline or grow less quickly than anticipated, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Additionally, some of our customers may have multiple subscription plans simultaneously. For example, large enterprises with distributed procurement processes where different buyers, departments, or affiliates make their own purchasing decisions based on distinct product features or separate budgets. Companies who are our existing customers may also acquire another organization that is already on our subscription plan or complete a reorganization or spin-off transaction that results in an organization subscribing to multiple subscription plans. If organizations that subscribe to multiple subscription plans decide not to consolidate all of their subscription plans or decide to downgrade to lower priced or free subscription plans, our revenue may decline or grow less quickly than anticipated, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
A slowdown or decline in participation in our contributory network and/or increase in the volume of opt-out requests from individuals with respect to our collection of their data could lead to a deterioration in the depth, breadth, or accuracy of our data and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We have a number of sources contributing to the depth, breadth, and accuracy of the data on our platform including our contributory network. All of our free Community Edition users must participate in our contributory network to get access to data. Similarly, many of our paying customers participate in our contributory network to improve the quality of the data within their CRM and similar systems. Community Edition users may cease to participate in our contributory network after deciding not to renew our Community Edition version. Our paying customers, including those who have migrated from the Community Edition, may elect not to participate for various reasons, including their sensitivity to sharing information within our contributory network or their determination that the benefits from sharing do not outweigh the potential harm from sharing. If we are not able to attract new participants or maintain existing participants in our contributory network, our ability to effectively gather new data and update and maintain the accuracy of our database could be adversely affected. Additionally, CCPA and other legal and regulatory changes are making it easier for


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individuals to opt-out of having their personal data collected through an opt-out button available on our website, which could result in higher rates of opting out. We expect that third-party intermediaries will emerge that offer services involving opting individuals out of their personal data being collected at scale (i.e., from all platforms, including ours). Consequently, our ability to grow our business may be harmed and our results of operations and financial condition could suffer.
If we fail to protect and maintain our brand, our ability to attract and retain customers will be impaired, our reputation may be harmed, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition may suffer.
We believe that developing, protecting, and maintaining awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our platform and is an important element in attracting new organizations to our platform. Furthermore, we believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and on our ability to ensure that our products and services remains high-quality, reliable, and useful at competitive prices.
Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and, even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract new customers to the extent necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could suffer. In September 2019, we launched our new brand campaign to assume the ZoomInfo brand for our Company. While ZoomInfo was an existing brand, the selection of the ZoomInfo brand over DiscoverOrg may not be as successful as we intended, and we could lose the value of the DiscoverOrg brand without a corresponding benefit. At or about the time of the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI by ZoomInfo OpCo, we believed that ZoomInfo had greater brand awareness and greater potential, but that it had a weaker reputation for data quality than DiscoverOrg. If we are not successful in improving the perception of the ZoomInfo brand in terms of the quality and accuracy of its data, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could suffer. Furthermore, in connection with the development and implementation of our rebranding campaign, we have spent additional time and costs, including those associated with advertising and marketing efforts. If we are unable to effectively implement our rebranding campaign, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could suffer.
In addition, independent industry analysts often provide reviews of ZoomInfo, as well as the products offered by our competitors, and perception of the relative value of our ZoomInfo brand in the marketplace may be significantly influenced by these reviews. If these reviews are negative, or less positive as compared to those of our competitors’ products, our brand may be harmed.
Our business could be negatively affected by changes in search engine algorithms and dynamics or other traffic-generating arrangements.
We rely heavily on internet search engines, such as Google, including through the purchase of sales and marketing-related keywords and the indexing of our public-facing directory pages and other web pages, to generate a significant portion of the traffic to our website. Search engines frequently update and change the logic that determines the placement and display of results of a user’s search, such that the purchased or algorithmic placement of links to our website can be negatively affected. In addition, a significant amount of traffic is directed to our website through participation in pay-per-click and display advertising campaigns on search engines, including Google. Pricing and operating dynamics for these traffic sources can change rapidly, both technically and competitively. Moreover, a search engine could, for competitive or other purposes, alter its search algorithms or results, which could cause a website to place lower in search query results or inhibit participation in the search query results. If a major search engine changes its algorithms or results in a manner that negatively affects the search engine ranking, paid or unpaid, of our website, or if competitive dynamics impact the costs or effectiveness of search engine optimization, search engine marketing or other traffic-generating arrangements in a negative manner, our business and financial performance would be adversely affected.
We may not be able to adequately protect our proprietary and intellectual property rights in our data or technology.
Our success is dependent, in part, upon protecting our proprietary information and technology. We may be unsuccessful in adequately protecting our intellectual property. No assurance can be given that confidentiality, non-disclosure, or invention assignment agreements with employees, consultants, or other parties will not be breached and


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will otherwise be effective in controlling access to and distribution of our platform, or certain aspects of our platform, and proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our platform. Additionally, certain unauthorized use of our intellectual property may go undetected, or we may face legal or practical barriers to enforcing our legal rights even where unauthorized use is detected.
Current law may not provide for adequate protection of our platform or data. In addition, legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of proprietary rights in internet-related businesses are uncertain and evolving, and changes in these standards may adversely impact the viability or value of our proprietary rights. Some license provisions protecting against unauthorized use, copying, transfer, and disclosure of our platform, or certain aspects of our platform, or our data may be unenforceable under the laws of certain jurisdictions. Further, the laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries may be inadequate. To the extent we expand our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our data or certain aspects of our platform, or our data may increase. Further, competitors, foreign governments, foreign government-backed actors, criminals, or other third parties may gain unauthorized access to our proprietary information and technology. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our technology and intellectual property.
To protect our intellectual property rights, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect these rights, and we may or may not be able to detect infringement by our customers or third parties. Litigation has been and may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming, and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our platform, impair the functionality of our platform, delay introductions of new features, integrations, and capabilities, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our platform, or injure our reputation. In addition, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop and market new features, integrations, and capabilities, and we cannot be certain that we could license that technology on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and our inability to license this technology could harm our ability to compete.
Our customers or unauthorized parties could use our products and services in a manner that is contrary to our values or applicable law, which could harm our relationships with consumers, customers, or employees or expose us to litigation or harm our reputation.
Because our data includes the direct contact information for millions of individuals and businesses, our platform and data could be misused by customers, or by parties who have obtained access to our data without authorization, to contact individuals for purposes that we would not permit, including uses unrelated to B2B communication or recruiting, such as to harass or annoy individuals or to perpetrate scams. Our customers could use our products or services for purposes beyond the scope of their contractual terms or applicable laws or regulations. In addition, third parties could gain access to our data or our platform through our customers or through malfeasance or cyber-attacks and use our platform and data for purposes other than its intended purpose or to create products that compete with our platform. Our customers’ or third parties’ misuse of our data, inconsistent with its permitted use, could result in reputational damage, adversely affect our ability to attract new customers and cause existing customers to reduce or discontinue the use of our platform, any of which could harm our business and operating results.
Our brand may be negatively affected by the actions of persons using our platform that are hostile or inappropriate, by the actions of individuals acting under false or inauthentic identities, by the use of our products or services to disseminate information that is misleading (or intended to manipulate opinions), by perceived or actual efforts by governments to obtain access to user information for security-related purposes or to censor certain content on our platform or by the use of our products or services for illicit, objectionable, or illegal ends. Further, we may fail to respond expeditiously or appropriately to the sharing of our platform and data outside of the terms of a customers’


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license and the use of our data and insights for purposes other than for sales and marketing, or to otherwise address customer and individual concerns, which could erode confidence in our business.
As we acquire and invest in companies or technologies, we may not realize expected business or financial benefits and the acquisitions or investments could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our business, results of operation, and financial condition.
As part of our business strategy, from time to time we make investments in, or acquisitions of, complementary businesses, services, databases, and technologies, and we expect that we will continue to make such investments and acquisitions in the future to further grow our business and our product and service offerings. For example, in February 2019, we completed our largest acquisition to date of Pre-Acquisition ZI, for $748.0 million, net of cash acquired, which we are continuing to integrate. We have incurred severance costs and expect to incur additional costs to integrate prior acquisitions, such as IT integration expenses and costs related to the renegotiation of redundant vendor agreements. Since January 1, 2018, we have acquired substantially all of the assets of two other businesses as well: NeverBounce and Komiko, Inc. We may have difficulty effectively integrating the personnel, businesses, and technologies of these acquisitions into our Company and achieving the goals of those acquisitions.
Our strategy to make selective acquisitions to complement our platform depends on our ability to identify, and the availability of, suitable acquisition candidates. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. Acquired assets, data, or businesses may not be successfully integrated into our operations, costs in connection with acquisitions and integrations may be higher than expected and we may also incur unanticipated acquisition-related costs. These costs could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, or prospects. Any acquisition we complete could be viewed negatively by customers, users, developers, partners, or investors, and could have adverse effects on our existing business relationships.
Acquisitions and other transactions, arrangements, and investments involve numerous risks and could create unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, including:
potential failure to achieve the expected benefits on a timely basis or at all;
difficulties in, and the cost of, integrating operations, technologies, services, and platforms;
diversion of financial and managerial resources from existing operations;
the potential entry into new markets in which we have little or no experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions;
potential write-offs of acquired assets or investments and potential financial and credit risks associated with acquired customers;
differences between our values and those of our acquired companies;
difficulties in re-training key employees of acquired companies and integrating them into our organizational structure and corporate culture;
difficulties in, and financial costs of, addressing acquired compensation structures inconsistent with our compensation structure;
inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs;
inability to maintain, or changes in, relationships with customers and partners of the acquired business;
challenges converting and forecasting the acquired company’s revenue recognition policies including subscription-based revenue and revenue based on the transfer of control as well as appropriate allocation of the customer consideration to the individual deliverables;
difficulty with, and costs related to, transitioning the acquired technology onto our existing platforms and customer acceptance of multiple platforms on a temporary or permanent basis;


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augmenting the acquired technologies and platforms to the levels that are consistent with our brand and reputation;
potential for acquired products to impact the profitability of existing products;
increasing or maintaining the security standards for acquired technology consistent with our other services;
potential unknown liabilities associated with the acquired businesses, including risks associated with acquired intellectual property and/or technologies;
challenges relating to the structure of an investment, such as governance, accountability, and decision-making conflicts that may arise in the context of a joint venture or other majority ownership investments;
negative impact to our results of operations because of the depreciation and amortization of amounts related to acquired intangible assets, fixed assets, and deferred compensation;
additional stock-based compensation;
the loss of acquired unearned revenue and unbilled unearned revenue;
delays in customer purchases due to uncertainty related to any acquisition;
ineffective or inadequate controls, procedures, and policies at the acquired company;
in the case of foreign acquisitions, challenges caused by integrating operations over distance, and across different languages, cultures, and political environments;
currency and regulatory risks associated with foreign countries and potential additional cybersecurity and compliance risks resulting from entry into new markets;
tax effects and costs of any such acquisitions, including the related integration into our tax structure and assessment of the impact on the realizability of our future tax assets or liabilities; and
potential challenges by governmental authorities, including the Department of Justice, for anti-competitive or other reasons.
Any of these risks could harm our business. In addition, to facilitate these acquisitions or investments, we may seek additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on terms favorable to us or at all, may affect our ability to complete subsequent acquisitions or investments and may affect the risks of owning our Class A common stock. For example, if we finance acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible debt securities or loans, our existing stockholders may be diluted, or we could face constraints related to the terms of, and repayment obligation related to, the incurrence of indebtedness that could affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
If we fail to maintain adequate operational and financial resources, particularly if we continue to grow rapidly, we may be unable to execute our business plan or maintain high levels of service and customer satisfaction.
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, rapid growth, which has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial resources. We have more than five offices across the United States and one office in Israel. We have also experienced significant growth in the number of customers using our products and services and in the amount of data in our databases. In addition, our organizational structure is becoming more complex as we scale our operational, financial, and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures, and expand internationally. As we continue to grow, we face challenges of integrating, developing, training, and motivating a rapidly growing employee base in our various offices around the world and maintaining our company culture across multiple offices. Certain members of our management have not previously worked together for an extended period of time, and most do not have prior experience managing a public company, which may affect how they manage our growth. If we fail to manage our anticipated growth and change in a manner that preserves the key aspects of our corporate culture, the quality of our products and services may suffer, which could negatively affect our brand and reputation and harm our ability to attract users, employees, and organizations.


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To manage growth in our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to grow and improve our operational, financial, and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. We will require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management resources to grow and change in these areas. Our expansion has placed, and our expected future growth will continue to place, a significant strain on our management, customer experience, research and development, sales and marketing, administrative, financial, and other resources.
We anticipate that significant additional investments will be required to scale our operations and increase productivity, to address the needs of our customers, to further develop and enhance our products and services, to expand into new geographic areas and to scale with our overall growth. If additional investments are required due to significant growth, this will increase our cost base, which will make it more difficult for us to offset any future revenue shortfalls by reducing expenses in the short term.
In addition, as we expand our business, it is important that we continue to maintain a high level of customer service and satisfaction. As our paying customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our account management, customer service and other personnel, which will require more complex management and systems. If we are not able to continue to provide high levels of customer service, our reputation, as well as our business, results of operations, and financial condition, could be harmed.
Failure to effectively expand our sales capabilities could harm our ability to bring on new customers at the rate we anticipate.
The rate at which we can acquire new customers will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our sales operations. We plan to continue expanding our sales force, and that will require us to invest significant financial and other resources to train and grow our sales force, in order to complement our go-to-market approach. Our business will be harmed if our efforts do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire and develop talented sales personnel, if our new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if we are unable to retain our existing sales personnel. We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel with the skills and technical knowledge that we require. Our ability to achieve revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth.
If we fail to offer high-quality customer experience, our business and reputation will suffer.
Numerous factors may impact a customer’s experience which may in turn impact the likelihood of such customer renewing or upgrading its subscription. Those factors include the usability of the platform, the depth, breadth, and accuracy of the data, the adequacy of our product documentation, and the quality of our onboarding, training, account management, and customer technical and research support functions. The number of customers has grown rapidly, and the continued growth that we anticipate will put additional pressure on our customer experience programs. It may be difficult for us to identify, recruit, train, and manage enough people with enough skill and talent in each area of the customer experience to adequately scale those functions to match the growth of our customer base. In addition, larger enterprise customers and customers with larger subscriptions are more demanding of our customer experience programs, in particular our research support services. If and as we add more large enterprise customers and increase the ACV of existing subscriptions, we may need to devote even more resources to such programs, and we may find it difficult to effectively scale those programs. If we do not adequately scale our customer experience operations to meet the demands of our growing customer base, an increase in large enterprise customers and large customer subscriptions or otherwise fail to provide an overall high-quality customer experience, fewer customers could renew or upgrade their subscriptions, and our reputation could suffer, negatively impacting our ability to acquire new customers, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In addition, customers from time to time rely upon our customer technical and research support teams to resolve technical and data accuracy issues relating to our products and services. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services. Increased customer demand for these services, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our reputation and operating results.


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As more of our sales efforts target larger enterprise customers, our sales cycle may become longer and more expensive, and we may encounter pricing pressure and implementation and configuration challenges that may require us to delay revenue recognition for some complex transactions, all of which could harm our business and operating results.
As we target more of our sales efforts at larger enterprise customers and governmental or quasi-governmental entities, we may face longer sales cycles, greater competition, more complex customer due diligence, less favorable contractual terms, and less predictability in completing some of our sales.
Consequently, a target customer’s decision to use our services may be an enterprise-wide decision and, if so, these types of sales would require us to provide greater levels of education regarding the use and benefits of our products and services, as well as education regarding privacy and data protection laws and regulations to prospective customers. In addition, larger enterprise customers and governmental entities may demand more configuration, integration services, and features. As a result of these factors, these sales opportunities may require us to devote greater sales support and professional services resources to individual customers, driving up costs and time required to complete sales and diverting resources to a smaller number of larger transactions, while potentially requiring us to delay revenue recognition on some of these transactions until the technical or implementation requirements have been met.
We may fail to offer the optimal pricing and packaging of our products and services.
We have limited experience in determining the optimal pricing and packaging of our products and services, and we may need to change our pricing model from time to time. Demand for our products and services is sensitive to price, and current or prospective customers may choose not to subscribe or renew or upgrade their subscriptions due to costs. Further, certain of our competitors offer, or may in the future offer, lower-priced or free products or services that compete with our products and services or may bundle functionality compatible with our products and services and offer a broader range of products and services. Similarly, certain competitors may use marketing strategies that enable them to acquire users more rapidly or at a lower cost than us, or both. As we expand internationally, we may find that pricing and packaging appropriate in our current market is not acceptable to prospective customers in certain new markets. In addition, if our mix of features, integrations, and capabilities on our products and services changes or we develop additional versions for specific use cases or additional premium versions, then we may need or choose to revise our pricing.
We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates will not be indicative of our future growth.
We have experienced rapid organic and acquisition-driven growth in recent periods. We do not expect revenue growth in future periods to be consistent with recent history. Further, as we operate in a new and rapidly changing market, widespread acceptance and use of our platform is critical to our future growth and success. We believe our revenue growth depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:
attract new customers;
provide excellent customer experience;
renew and grow current customer subscriptions;
convert users of and organizations on our free Community Edition into paying customers;
introduce and grow adoption of our products and services in new markets outside of the United States;
achieve widespread acceptance and use of our platform;
adequately expand our sales force and otherwise scale our operations as a business;
expand the features and capabilities of our platform, including through the creation and use of additional integrations;
maintain the security and reliability of our platform;


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comply with existing and new applicable laws and regulations;
price and package our products and services effectively;
successfully compete against established companies and new market entrants;
increase awareness of our brand on a global basis; and
execute on our acquisition strategy.
We may not be able to successfully implement our strategic initiatives in accordance with our expectations, or in the timeframe we desire, which may result in an adverse impact on our business and financial results. We also expect our operating expenses to increase in future periods, and if our revenue growth does not increase to offset these anticipated increases in our operating expenses, our business, results of operations, and financial condition will be harmed and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
Further, our rapid growth may make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects. Our ability to forecast our future results of operations is subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to effectively plan for and model future growth. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, or if we are not able to accurately forecast future growth, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be harmed.
We depend on our executive officers and other key employees, and the loss of one or more of these employees or an inability to attract and retain other highly skilled employees could harm our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our executive officers and other key employees. We rely on our leadership team in the areas of research and development, operations, security, analytics, marketing, sales, customer experience, and general and administrative functions and on individual contributors in our research and development and operations. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees could harm our business. Changes in our executive management team may also cause disruptions in, and harm to, our business.
The company continues to be led by our CEO and co-founder, Henry Schuck, who plays an important role in driving the company’s culture, determining the strategy, and executing against that strategy across the company. If Mr. Schuck’s services became unavailable to the company for any reason, it may be difficult or impossible for the company to find an adequate replacement, which could cause us to be less successful in maintaining our culture and developing and effectively executing on our company strategies.
In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel on the West Coast, where our headquarters is located, and in other locations where we maintain offices, is intense, especially for engineers experienced in designing and developing software and Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) applications and experienced sales professionals. We have from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. In addition, certain domestic immigration laws restrict or limit our ability to recruit internationally. Any changes to U.S. immigration policies that restrain the flow of technical and professional talent may inhibit our ability to recruit and retain highly qualified employees. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have and may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them.
If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees have breached their legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, it may harm our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed. Meanwhile, additions of executive-level management and large numbers of employees could significantly and adversely impact our culture. If we do not maintain and continue to develop our


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corporate culture as we grow and evolve, it could harm our ability to foster the innovation, creativity and teamwork we believe that we need to support our growth.
In addition, many of our key technologies and systems are custom-made for our business by our key personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of our management team, as well as certain of our key marketing, sales, product development, or technology personnel, could disrupt our operations and have an adverse effect on our ability to grow our business.
If we have overestimated the size of our total addressable market, our future growth rate may be limited.
We have estimated the size of our total addressable market based on internally generated data and assumptions, and such information is inherently imprecise. In addition, our projections, assumptions, and estimates of opportunities within our market are subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, those described in this prospectus. If these internally generated data prove to be inaccurate or we make errors in our assumptions based on that data, our actual market may be more limited than our estimates. In addition, these inaccuracies or errors may cause us to misallocate capital and other critical business resources, which could harm our business.
Even if our total addressable market meets our size estimates and experiences growth, we may not continue to grow our share of the market. Our growth is subject to many factors, including our success in implementing our business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, the estimates of our total addressable market included in this prospectus should not be taken as indicative of our ability to grow our business. For more information regarding the estimates of market opportunity and the forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus, see the sections titled “Summary—Our Market Opportunity” and “Business—Our Market Opportunity.”
We may experience quarterly fluctuations in our operating results due to a number of factors which makes our future results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or our guidance.
Our quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance, and comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this prospectus, factors that may affect our quarterly operating results include the following:
our ability to attract and retain customers and grow subscriptions of existing customers;
our ability to price and package our products and services effectively;
pricing pressure as a result of competition or otherwise;
unforeseen costs and expenses, including those related to the expansion of our business and operations;
changes in customers’ budgets and in the timing of their budget cycles and purchasing decisions;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including consolidation among competitors or customers and the introduction of new products or product enhancements;
the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly research and development, sales, and marketing expenses and employee benefit expenses;
the timing of revenue and expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies, products, or businesses;
potential goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges and amortization associated with acquired businesses;
potential restructuring and transaction-related expenses;


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the amount and timing of costs associated with recruiting, training, and integrating new employees while maintaining our company culture;
our ability to manage our existing business and future growth, including increases in the number of customers on our platform and the introduction and adoption of our platform in new markets outside of the United States;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; and
general economic and political conditions in our domestic and international markets.
We may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future subscriptions, revenue, and expenses and, as a result, our operating results may fall below our estimates or the expectations of public market analysts and investors. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, or below any guidance we may provide, the price of our Class A common stock could decline.
Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.
We may require additional financing, and we may not be able to obtain debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise equity financing to fund operations or on an opportunistic basis, our stockholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests. Our secured credit facilities restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, require us to maintain specified minimum liquidity and restrict our ability to pay dividends. The terms of any additional debt financing may be similar or more restrictive. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:
develop new features, integrations, capabilities, and enhancements;
continue to expand our product development, sales, and marketing organizations;
hire, train, and retain employees;
respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated working capital requirements; or
pursue acquisition opportunities.
For more information, see “—Risks Related to Our Indebtedness.”
We devote, and may continue to devote, substantial resources to our earlier platforms.
Our newest platform was developed by combining features from our earlier DiscoverOrg platform and the platform developed by (and acquired by us through the acquisition of) Pre-Acquisition ZI. Certain existing customers continue to use and may prefer to continue to use in the future those earlier platforms, which we continue to support. If we are unable to migrate our existing customers using our earlier platforms to our new platform, we may continue to devote substantial resources to the maintenance of our earlier platforms, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition, or we may experience customer dissatisfaction if we choose to no longer support those earlier platforms, which could cause certain customers not to renew or grow their subscriptions.


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Operations and sales to customers outside the United States expose us to risks inherent in international operations.
Our success depends in part on our ability to expand sales to customers located outside of the United States. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, our business outside of the United States accounted for approximately 7% and 9% of total revenue, respectively. Any new markets or countries into which we attempt to sell subscriptions to our platform may not be as receptive to our products and services as we anticipate. Expansion of sales to international customers may also create challenges for our U.S.-based sales and customer experience functions and may require us to consider expanding operations internationally. A significant increase in international customers or an expansion of our operations into other countries could create additional risks and challenges, including:
a need to localize our products and services, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;
competition from local incumbents that better understand the local market, customs, and culture, may market and operate more effectively, and may enjoy greater local affinity or awareness;
a need to comply with foreign regulatory frameworks or business practices, which among other things may favor local competitors;
evolving domestic and international tax environments;
liquidity issues or political actions by sovereign nations, including nations with a controlled currency environment, which could result in decreased values of balances or potential difficulties protecting our foreign assets or satisfying local obligations;
foreign currency fluctuations and controls, which may make our products and services more expensive for international customers and could add volatility to our operating results;
compliance with multiple, conflicting, ambiguous, or evolving governmental laws and regulations, including employment, tax, privacy, anti-corruption, import/export, economic sanctions, trade controls, antitrust, and data transfer, storage and protection, and our ability to identify and respond timely to compliance issues when they occur;
vetting and monitoring internal or external sales or customer experience resources in new and evolving markets to confirm they maintain standards consistent with our brand and reputation;
uncertainty regarding regulation, currency, tax, and operations resulting from the Brexit vote that could disrupt trade, the sale of our services and commerce and movement of our people between the United Kingdom, the European Union, and other locations;
changes in the public perception of governments in the regions where we operate or plan to operate;
treatment of revenue from international sources, intellectual property considerations, and changes to tax codes, including being subject to foreign tax laws and being liable for paying withholding income or other taxes in foreign jurisdictions;
different pricing environments;
different or lesser protection of our intellectual property;
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and other collection difficulties;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including the imposition of new trade restrictions, trade protection measures, import or export requirements, trade embargoes, and other trade barriers;
natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, pandemics, or security breaches;
regional economic and political conditions; and


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higher costs of doing business internationally, including increased accounting, travel, infrastructure, and legal compliance costs.
Any of these factors could negatively impact our business and results of operations.
Cyber-attacks and security vulnerabilities could result in serious harm to our reputation, business, and financial condition.
Threats to network and data security are constantly evolving and becoming increasingly diverse and sophisticated. Our products and services, as well as our servers and computer systems and those of third parties that we rely on in our operations could be vulnerable to cybersecurity risks. As such, we may be subject to risks inherent to companies that process personal data. An increasing number of organizations have disclosed breaches of their information security systems, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted attacks.
We expect that third parties will continue to attempt to gain unauthorized access to our systems or facilities through various means, including hacking into our systems or facilities, or those of our customers or vendors, or attempting to fraudulently induce our employees, customers, vendors or other users of our systems into disclosing sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access our IT systems. Our cybersecurity programs and efforts to protect our systems and data, and to prevent, detect and respond to data security incidents, may not prevent these threats or provide adequate security. Further, we may be subject to additional liability risks associated with data security breaches or other incidents by virtue of the private right of action granted to individuals under certain data privacy laws for actions arising from certain data security incidents.
We may experience breaches of our security measures due to human error, malfeasance, system errors or vulnerabilities, or other irregularities. Actual or perceived breaches of our security could subject us to regulatory investigations and orders, litigation, indemnity obligations, damages, penalties, fines and other costs in connection with actual and alleged contractual breaches, violations of applicable laws and regulations and other liabilities. Any such incident could also materially damage our reputation and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. We maintain errors, omissions, and cyber liability insurance policies covering certain security and privacy damages. However, we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
Technical problems or disruptions that affect either our customers’ ability to access our services, or the software, internal applications, database, and network systems underlying our services, could damage our reputation and brands and lead to reduced demand for our products and services, lower revenues, and increased costs.
Our business, brand, reputation, and ability to attract and retain users and customers depend upon the satisfactory performance, reliability, and availability of our websites, which in turn depend upon the availability of the internet and our service providers. Interruptions in these systems, whether due to system failures, computer viruses, software errors, physical or electronic break-ins, or malicious hacks or attacks on our systems (such as denial of service attacks), could affect the security and availability of our services on our mobile applications and our websites and prevent or inhibit the ability of users to access our products or services. In addition, the software, internal applications, and systems underlying our products and services are complex and may not be error-free. We may encounter technical problems when we attempt to enhance our software, internal applications, and systems. Any inefficiencies, errors, or technical problems with our software, internal applications, and systems could reduce the quality of our products and services or interfere with our customers’ use of our products and services, which could reduce demand, lower our revenues, and increase our costs.
Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from fire, flood, power loss, security breaches, computer viruses, telecommunications failure, terrorist attacks, acts of war, electronic and physical break-ins, earthquakes, and similar events. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events could result in damage to or failure of our systems and hardware. These risks may be increased with respect to operations housed at facilities outside of our direct control, and the majority of the communications, network, and computer hardware used to operate the cloud for our platforms are located at facilities maintained by Google or Amazon, which we do not own or control.


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Problems faced or caused by our IT service providers, including content distribution service providers, private network providers, internet providers, and third-party web-hosting providers, or with the systems by which they allocate capacity among their customers (as applicable), could adversely affect the experience of our users. If our third-party service providers are unable to keep up with our growing needs for capacity, our business could be harmed. Additionally, if these third-party cloud services stop providing services to us or increase rates, we may be unable to find sufficient other third-party providers, which could harm our business. See “—Interruptions or delays in services from third parties, including data center hosting facilities, internet infrastructure, cloud computing platform providers, and other hardware and software vendors, or our inability to adequately plan for and manage service interruptions or infrastructure capacity requirements, could impair the delivery of our services and harm our business.” In addition, if distribution channels for our mobile applications experience disruptions, such disruptions could adversely affect the ability of users and potential users to access or update our mobile applications. If our platform is unavailable to users or fails to function as quickly as users expect, it could result in reduced customer satisfaction and reduced attractiveness of our platform to customers. This in turn could lead to decreased sales to new customers, harm our ability to renew or grow the subscriptions of existing customers, and/or the issuance of service credits or refunds, any of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our services could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Interruptions or delays in services from third parties, including data center hosting facilities, internet infrastructure, cloud computing platform providers, and other hardware and software vendors, or our inability to adequately plan for and manage service interruptions or infrastructure capacity requirements, could impair the delivery of our services and harm our business.
We currently serve our customers through the use of third-party data center hosting facilities and cloud computing platform providers. Damage to, or failure of, these systems, or systems upon which they depend such as internet infrastructure, could result in interruptions in our services. We have from time to time experienced interruptions in our services and such interruptions may occur in the future. Interruptions in our services may cause us to issue credits to customers, cause customers to make warranty or other claims against us or to terminate their subscriptions, and adversely affect our customer renewal and upgrade performance and our ability to attract new customers, all of which would reduce our revenue. Our business would also be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our services are unreliable.
We do not control the operation of third-party facilities, and they may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, and similar events. They may also be subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism, and similar misconduct, as well as local administrative actions, changes to legal or permitting requirements, and litigation to stop, limit, or delay operation. The occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our services.
These hardware, software, data, and cloud computing systems may not continue to be available at reasonable prices, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of these hardware, software, or cloud computing systems could significantly increase our expenses and otherwise result in delays in the provisioning of our services until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained through purchase or license, and integrated into our services.
If the way cookies are used or shared, or if the use or transfer of cookies is restricted by third parties outside of our control or becomes subject to unfavorable legislation or regulation, our ability to develop and provide certain products or services could be diminished or eliminated.
Small text files (referred to as “cookies”) placed on internet browsers by certain websites are used to gather data regarding the content of a user’s web browsing activity. We license data gathered using cookies to identify trends in online content consumption by business organizations in order to make assumptions about the goods and services such businesses may purchase. The availability of this data may be limited by numerous potential factors, including general trends among internet users to refuse to accept cookies on their web browsers, laws or regulations limiting the transferability or use of information gathered using cookies, or the refusal of providers of such information to provide


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it to us or to provide it to us on favorable terms. If we are not able to obtain this information on the terms we anticipate, we will not be able to provide some of our predictive intent products or services, which may cause a reduction in revenue or a reduction in revenue growth. It may negatively impact our ability to obtain new customers, as well as our ability to renew or grow the subscriptions of existing customers.
Cookies may easily be deleted or blocked by internet users. All of the most commonly used internet browsers (including Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari) allow internet users to prevent cookies from being accepted by their browsers. Internet users can also delete cookies from their computers at any time. Some internet users also download “ad blocking” software that prevents cookies from being stored on a user’s computer. If more internet users adopt these settings or delete their cookies more frequently than they currently do, our business could be harmed. In addition, the Safari and Firefox browsers block third-party cookies by default, and other browsers may do so in the future. Unless such default settings in browsers were altered by internet users to permit the placement of third-party cookies, fewer cookies would be available, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, companies such as Google have publicly disclosed their intention to move away from cookies to another form of persistent unique identifier (“ID”) to identify individual internet users or internet-connected devices in the bidding process on advertising exchanges. If companies do not use shared IDs across the entire ecosystem, this could have a negative impact on our ability obtain content consumption data.
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
Most members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors, and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition to being a public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to forecast our revenue and evaluate our business and future prospects.
Our business was originally founded in 2007, though much of our growth has occurred in recent periods. Our newest platform was introduced publicly in September 2019. As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to forecast our future results of operations and plan for and model future growth is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly evolving industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. Additionally, the sales cycle for the evaluation and implementation of our paid versions, which can range from a single day to many months, may also cause us to experience a delay between increasing operating expenses and the generation of corresponding revenue, if any. Accordingly, we may be unable to prepare accurate internal financial forecasts or replace anticipated revenue that we do not receive as a result of delays arising from these factors, and our results of operations in future reporting periods may be below the expectations of investors. If we do not address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our estimates and forecasts or the expectations of investors, causing our business to suffer and our Class A common stock price to decline.
We may be subject to litigation for any of a variety of claims, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In the ordinary course of business, we may be involved in and subject to litigation for a variety of claims or disputes and receive regulatory inquiries. These claims, lawsuits, and proceedings could include labor and employment, wage and hour, commercial, data privacy, antitrust, alleged securities law violations or other investor claims, and other matters. The number and significance of these potential claims and disputes may increase as our business expands. Any claim against us, regardless of its merit, could be costly, divert management’s attention and operational resources, and harm our reputation. As litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that any potential claims or disputes will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could make it more difficult to compete effectively or to obtain adequate insurance in the future.


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In addition, we may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our contractual, property, and other rights, including collection of payments and fees. Litigation has been and may be necessary in the future to enforce such rights. Such litigation could be costly, time consuming, and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of our rights. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of such rights. Our inability to protect our rights as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition or injure our reputation.
We may in the future be sued by third parties for various claims including alleged infringement of proprietary intellectual property rights.
There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our market, and litigation, based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property, is frequent in software and internet-based industries. We may receive communications from third parties, including practicing entities and non-practicing entities, claiming that we have infringed their intellectual property rights.
In addition, we may be sued by third parties for breach of contract, defamation, negligence, unfair competition, or copyright or trademark infringement or claims based on other theories. We could also be subject to claims based upon the content that is accessible from our website through links to other websites or information on our website supplied by third parties or claims that our collection of information from third-party sites without a license violates certain federal or state laws or website terms of use. We could also be subject to claims that the collection or provision of certain information breached laws or regulations relating to privacy or data protection. Additionally, there are potential issues around possible ownership rights in personal data, which is subject to evolving regulatory oversight. As a result of claims against us regarding suspected infringement, our technologies may be subject to injunction, we may be required to pay damages, or we may have to seek a license to continue certain practices (which may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all), all of which may significantly increase our operating expenses or may require us to restrict our business activities and limit our ability to deliver our products and services and/or certain features, integrations, and capabilities of our platform. As a result, we may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense and/or cause us to alter our products or services, which could negatively affect our business. Further, many of our subscription agreements require us to indemnify our customers for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, so any alleged infringement by us resulting in claims against such customers would increase our liability.
Our exposure to risks associated with various claims, including the use of intellectual property, may be increased as a result of acquisitions of other companies. For example, we may have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to intellectual property or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks with respect to the acquired company or technology. In addition, third parties may make infringement and similar or related claims after we have acquired technology that had not been asserted prior to our acquisition.
We may be subject to liability if we breach our contracts, and our insurance may be inadequate to cover our losses.
We are subject to numerous obligations in our contracts with organizations using our products and services, as well as vendors and other companies with which we do business. We may breach these commitments, whether through a weakness in our procedures, systems, and internal controls, negligence, or through the willful act of an employee or contractor. Our insurance policies, including our errors and omissions insurance, may be inadequate to compensate us for the potentially significant losses that may result from claims arising from breaches of our contracts, as well as disruptions in our services, failures or disruptions to our infrastructure, catastrophic events and disasters, or otherwise.
In addition, our insurance may not cover all claims made against us, and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention. Further, such insurance may not be available to us in the future on economically reasonable terms, or at all.


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Changes in laws and regulations related to the internet or changes in the internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our platform and could harm our business.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the internet as a primary medium for commerce, communication, and business applications. Federal, state, or foreign governmental bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the internet as a commercial medium. The adoption of any laws or regulations that could reduce the growth, popularity, or use of the internet, including laws or practices limiting internet neutrality, could decrease the demand for, or the usage of, our products and services, increase our cost of doing business, and harm our results of operations. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our platform, or certain aspects of our platform, in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees, or other charges for accessing the internet or commerce conducted via the internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of internet-related commerce or communications generally or result in reductions in the demand for internet-based products such as ours. In addition, the use of the internet as a business tool could be harmed due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility, and quality of service. Further, our platform depends on the quality of our users’ access to the internet.
On June 11, 2018, the repeal of the Federal Communications Commission’s (the “FCC”), “net neutrality” rules took effect and returned to a “light-touch” regulatory framework. The prior rules were designed to ensure that all online content is treated the same by internet service providers and other companies that provide broadband services. Additionally, on September 30, 2018, California enacted the California internet Consumer Protection and Net Neutrality Act of 2018, making California the fourth state to enact a state-level net neutrality law since the FCC repealed its nationwide regulations, mandating that all broadband services in California must be provided in accordance with state net neutrality requirements. The U.S. Department of Justice has sued to block the law going into effect, and California has agreed to delay enforcement until the resolution of the FCC’s repeal of the federal rules. A number of other states are considering legislation or executive actions that would regulate the conduct of broadband providers. We cannot predict whether the FCC order or state initiatives will be modified, overturned, or vacated by legal action of the court, federal legislation or the FCC. With the repeal of net neutrality rules in effect, we could incur greater operating expenses, which could harm our results of operations. As the internet continues to experience growth in the number of users, frequency of use, and amount of data transmitted, the internet infrastructure that we and our users rely on may be unable to support the demands placed upon it. The failure of the internet infrastructure that we or our users rely on, even for a short period of time, could undermine our operations and harm our results of operations.
Internet access is frequently provided by companies that have significant market power that could take actions that degrade, disrupt, or increase the cost of user access to our platform, which would negatively impact our business. The performance of the internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been harmed by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs and the internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the internet is adversely affected by these issues, demand for our platform could decline.
We could incur greater operating expenses and our user acquisition and retention could be negatively impacted if network operators:
implement usage-based pricing;
discount pricing for competitive products;
otherwise materially change their pricing rates or schemes;
charge us to deliver our traffic at certain levels or at all;
throttle traffic based on its source or type;
implement bandwidth caps or other usage restrictions; or
otherwise try to monetize or control access to their networks.


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Action by governments to restrict access to our platforms in their countries or to require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our platforms depend on the ability of our users to access the internet and our platforms could be blocked or restricted in some countries for various reasons. Further, it is possible that governments of one or more foreign countries may seek to limit access to or certain features of our platforms in their countries, or impose other restrictions that may affect the availability of our platforms, or certain features of our platforms, in their countries for an extended period of time or indefinitely. For example, Russia and China are among a number of countries that have recently blocked certain online services, including Amazon Web Services (which is one of our cloud hosting providers), making it very difficult for such services to access those markets. In addition, governments in certain countries may seek to restrict or prohibit access to our platforms if they consider us to be in violation of their laws (including privacy laws) and may require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession. If we fail to anticipate developments in the law or fail for any reason to comply with relevant law, our platforms could be further blocked or restricted and we could be exposed to significant liability that could harm our business. In the event that access to our platforms is restricted, in whole or in part, in one or more countries or our competitors are able to successfully penetrate geographic markets that we cannot access, our ability to add new customers or renew or grow the subscriptions of existing customers may be adversely affected, we may not be able to maintain or grow our revenue as anticipated and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We are subject to sanctions, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal penalties or significant fines and harm our business and reputation.
We are subject to requirements under the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and similar laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”), the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and agents from promising, authorizing, making, offering, or providing anything of value to a “foreign official” for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business, or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. As we increase our international sales and business, our risks under these laws may increase. Noncompliance with these laws could subject us to investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, adverse media coverage, and other consequences. Any investigations, actions or sanctions could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
In addition, in the future we may use third parties to sell access to our platform and conduct business on our behalf abroad. We or such future third-party intermediaries, may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities, and we can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of such future third-party intermediaries, and our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. We cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will always protect us from liability for acts committed by employees, agents, or business partners of ours (or of businesses we acquire or partner with) that would violate U.S. and/or non-U.S. laws, including the laws governing payments to government officials, bribery, fraud, kickbacks, false claims, pricing, sales and marketing practices, conflicts of interest, competition, employment practices and workplace behavior, export and import compliance, economic and trade sanctions, money laundering, data privacy, and other related laws. Any such improper actions or allegations of such acts could subject us to significant sanctions, including civil or criminal fines and penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions, and debarment from government contracts, as well as related stockholder lawsuits and other remedial measures, all of which could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Software intended to prevent access to our products and service from certain geographies may not be effective in all cases.
Any violation of economic and trade sanction laws, export and import laws, the FCPA, or other applicable anti-corruption laws or anti-money laundering laws could also result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, and, in the case of the FCPA, suspension or


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debarment from U.S. government contracts, any of which could have a materially adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, and prospects.
Changes in existing financial accounting standards or practices may harm our results of operations.
Changes in existing accounting rules or practices, new accounting pronouncements, or varying interpretations of current accounting pronouncements could negatively impact our results of operations. Further, such changes could potentially affect our reporting of transactions completed before such changes are effective. GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
In particular, in May 2014, the FASB and International Accounting Standard Board jointly issued a new revenue recognition standard, Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, later codified as Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606 (collectively with subsequent amendments, “Topic 606”), that is designed to improve financial reporting by creating a common recognition guidance for GAAP. The core principle of this guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those services.
We adopted Topic 606, effective January 1, 2018, using the full retrospective method of adoption as if the adoption occurred on January 1, 2017, while Pre-Acquisition ZI adopted Topic 606 effective January 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective method of adoption. Results for Pre-Acquisition ZI beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be presented in accordance with their historic accounting under ASC Topic 605 Revenue Recognition. We believe that the revenue presented for Pre-Acquisition ZI in 2018 would not have materially changed, had Pre-Acquisition ZI used the full retrospective method of adoption for Topic 606 and restated their 2018 revenue figures. See Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies within our consolidated financial statements included appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 Leases (Topic 842) (“Topic 842”), which increases the transparency and comparability among organizations’ accounting for leases. The guidance requires a company to recognize lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet, as well as disclose key information about lease arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued guidance to permit an alternative transition method for Topic 842, which allows transition to the new lease standard by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. We adopted Topic 842 as of January 1, 2019 under this new alternative transition method. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard, which among other things, allows us to carry forward the historical lease classification. In addition, as a practical expedient relating to our property leases, we will not separate lease components from nonlease components. We did not elect the hindsight practical expedient permitted under the transition guidance within the new lease standard. While adoption of Topic 842 did not have a material impact to our consolidated statements of operations or comprehensive loss, we did record a material increase to our assets and liabilities on the balance sheet upon adoption of this standard. Upon adoption, we recognized a right-of-use asset of $9.3 million and a lease liability of $12.8 million, largely pertaining to the Company’s headquarter office lease, with a cumulative-effect adjustment, net of tax, to retained earnings in the amount of $1.8 million representing hidden impairment. In addition, we recorded an additional $28.6 million right-of-use asset and lease liability on February 1, 2019 in connection with the acquisition of Pre-Acquisition ZI.
Any difficulties in implementing these pronouncements could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline and harm investors’ confidence in us.


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Our internal controls over financial reporting currently do not meet all of the standards contemplated by Section 404 of SOX, and failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of SOX could impair our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations and have a material adverse effect on our business.
As a public company, we will have significant requirements for enhanced financial reporting and internal controls. The process of designing and implementing effective internal controls is a continuous effort that will require us to anticipate and react to changes in our business and the economic and regulatory environments and to expend significant resources to maintain a system of internal controls that is adequate to satisfy our reporting obligations as a public company. If we are unable to establish or maintain appropriate internal financial reporting controls and procedures, it could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations on a timely basis, result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements, and harm our operating results. In addition, we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of SOX, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in the second annual report on Form 10-K following the completion of this offering. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards that must be met for our management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing, and possible remediation. Testing and maintaining internal controls may divert management’s attention from other matters that are important to our business. Beginning with our second annual report on Form 10-K following the completion of this offering, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis. However, while we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we are not able to complete our initial assessment of our internal controls and otherwise implement the requirements of Section 404 of SOX in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to the adequacy of our internal controls over financial reporting.
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe certain non-GAAP measures may be useful in evaluating our operating performance. We present certain non-GAAP financial measures in this prospectus and intend to continue to present certain non-GAAP financial measures in future filings with the SEC and other public statements. Any failure to accurately report and present our non-GAAP financial measures could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Matters impacting our internal controls may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions by the SEC or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules, which may result in a breach of the covenants under existing or future financing arrangements. There also could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in the reliability of our financial statements also could suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm continue to report a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. This could materially adversely affect us and lead to a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock.
In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018, our management and auditors determined that a material weakness existed in the internal control over financial reporting due to insufficient controls over the review and approval of manual journal entries, including appropriate segregation of duties, and limited accounting department personnel capable of appropriately accounting for complex transactions undertaken by the company. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. While we remediated several of the issues described above and continue to take remediation steps, including hiring additional personnel around and subsequent to December 31, 2018, including a new chief financial officer with experience with scale subscription businesses and a vice president of accounting and controller with public company experience, we continued to have a limited number of personnel with the level of GAAP accounting knowledge, specifically related to complex accounting


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transactions, commensurate with our financial reporting requirements. As such, we continued to have a material weakness in our control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019.
Although we believe the additional accounting resources will remediate the weakness with respect to insufficient personnel, there can be no assurance that the material weakness will be remediated on a timely basis or at all, or that additional material weaknesses will not be identified in the future. If we are unable to remediate the material weakness, our ability to record, process, and report financial information accurately, and to prepare financial statements within the time periods specified by the rules and forms of the SEC, could be adversely affected which, in turn, to may adversely affect our reputation and business and the market price of our Class A common stock.
Because we recognize subscription revenue over the subscription term, downturns or upturns in new sales and renewals are not immediately reflected in full in our results of operations.
We recognize revenue from subscriptions to our platform on a straight-line basis over the term of the contract subscription period beginning on the date access to our platform is granted, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. Our subscription arrangements generally have contractual terms requiring advance payment for annual or quarterly periods. As a result, much of the revenue we report each quarter is the recognition of deferred revenue from recurring subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed recurring subscription contracts in any one quarter will not be fully reflected in revenue in that quarter but will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in new or renewed sales of our recurring subscriptions are not reflected in full in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers is typically recognized over the applicable subscription term. By contrast, a majority of our costs are expensed as incurred, which could result in our recognition of more costs than revenue in the earlier portion of the subscription term, and we may not attain profitability in any given period.
We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing operating expenses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant net losses in each year since our inception, including net losses of $28.6 million in 2018 and $78.0 million in 2019, and we had an accumulated deficit of $213.8 million as of December 31, 2019. We may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future. Because the market for our platform is rapidly evolving and has not yet reached widespread adoption, it is difficult for us to predict our future results of operations or the limits of our market opportunity. We expect our operating expenses to significantly increase over the next several years as we hire additional personnel, particularly in sales and marketing and research and development, expand our partnerships, operations and infrastructure, both domestically and internationally, continue to enhance our platform and develop and expand its features, integrations, and capabilities, and expand and improve our platform. We also intend to continue to build and enhance our platform through both internal research and development and selectively pursuing acquisitions that can contribute to the capabilities of our platform. In addition, as we become a public company and grow, we will incur additional significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. If our revenue does not increase to offset the expected increases in our operating expenses, we may not be profitable in future periods. In future periods, our revenue growth could slow or our revenue could decline for a number of reasons, including any failure to increase the number of organizations on our platform, any failure to increase our number of paying customers, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure, for any reason, to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, slowing demand for our platform, additional regulatory burdens, or increasing competition. As a result, our past financial performance may not be indicative of our future performance. Any failure by us to achieve or sustain profitability on a consistent basis could cause the value of our Class A common stock to decline.
We have a significant amount of goodwill and intangible assets on our balance sheet, and our results of operations may be adversely affected if we fail to realize the full value of our goodwill and intangible assets.
Our balance sheet reflects goodwill and intangibles assets of $966.8 million and $370.6 million, as of December 31, 2018 and 2019, respectively. In accordance with GAAP, goodwill and intangible assets with an indefinite life are not amortized but are subject to a periodic impairment evaluation. Goodwill and acquired intangible assets with an indefinite life are tested for impairment at least annually or when events and circumstances indicate that fair value of a reporting unit may be below their carrying value. Acquired intangible assets with definite lives are amortized on a straight-line


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basis over the estimated period over which we expect to realize economic value related to the intangible asset. In addition, we review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset might not be recoverable. If indicators of impairment are present, we evaluate the carrying value in relation to estimates of future undiscounted cash flows. Our ability to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of the businesses we have acquired, which in turn depend in part on how well we have integrated these businesses into our own business. Judgments made by management relate to the expected useful lives of long-lived assets and our ability to realize undiscounted cash flows of the carrying amounts of such assets. The accuracy of these judgments may be adversely affected by several factors, including significant:
underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results;
changes in the manner of our use of acquired assets or the strategy for our overall business;
negative industry or economic trends; or
decline in our market capitalization relative to net book value for a sustained period.
These types of events or indicators and the resulting impairment analysis could result in impairment charges in the future. If we are not able to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets. Such impairment charges could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Unanticipated changes in our effective tax rate and additional tax liabilities may impact our financial results.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various jurisdictions outside of the United States. Our income tax obligations are generally determined based on our business operations in these jurisdictions. Significant judgment is often required in the determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes. Our effective tax rate could be impacted by changes in the earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in non-deductible expenses, changes in excess tax benefits of stock-based compensation, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and our ability to utilize them, the applicability of withholding taxes, effects from acquisitions, changes in accounting principles and tax laws in jurisdictions where we operate. Any changes, ambiguity, or uncertainty in taxing jurisdictions' administrative interpretations, decisions, policies, and positions could also materially impact our income tax liabilities.
As our business continues to grow and if we become more profitable, we anticipate that our income tax obligations could significantly increase. If our existing tax credits and net operating loss carry-forwards become fully utilized, we may be unable to offset or otherwise mitigate our tax obligations to the same extent as in prior years. This could have a material impact to our future cash flows or operating results.
In addition, recent global tax developments applicable to multinational businesses, including certain approaches of addressing taxation of digital economy recently proposed or enacted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Commission or certain major jurisdictions where we operate or might in the future operate, might have a material impact to our business and future cash flow from operating activities, or future financial results. We are also subject to tax examinations in multiple jurisdictions. While we regularly evaluate new information that may change our judgment resulting in recognition, derecognition, or changes in measurement of a tax position taken, there can be no assurance that the final determination of any examinations will not have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial position. In addition, our operations may change, which may impact our tax liabilities. As our brand becomes increasingly recognizable both domestically and internationally, our tax planning structure and corresponding profile may be subject to increased scrutiny and if we are perceived negatively, we may experience brand or reputational harm.
We may also be subject to additional tax liabilities and penalties due to changes in non-income based taxes resulting from changes in federal, state, or international tax laws, changes in taxing jurisdictions’ administrative interpretations, decisions, policies and positions, results of tax examinations, settlements or judicial decisions, changes in accounting principles, changes to the business operations, including acquisitions, as well as the evaluation of new information that


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results in a change to a tax position taken in a prior period. Any resulting increase in our tax obligation or cash taxes paid could adversely affect our cash flows and financial results.
Changes in tax laws or regulations in the various tax jurisdictions we are subject to that are applied adversely to us or our paying customers could increase the costs of our products and services and harm our business.
New income, sales, use, or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be enacted at any time. Those enactments could harm our domestic and international business operations and our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified, or applied adversely to us. These events could require us or our paying customers to pay additional tax amounts on a prospective or retroactive basis, as well as require us or our paying customers to pay fines and/or penalties and interest for past amounts deemed to be due. If we raise our prices to offset the costs of these changes, existing and potential future paying customers may elect not to purchase our products and services in the future. Additionally, new, changed, modified, or newly interpreted or applied tax laws could increase our paying customers’ and our compliance, operating, and other costs, as well as the costs of our products and services. Further, these events could decrease the capital we have available to operate our business. Any or all of these events could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
On December 22, 2017, the legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), was enacted, which contains significant changes to U.S. tax law, including, but not limited to, a reduction in the corporate tax rate and a transition to a modified territorial system of taxation. The primary impact of the new legislation on us is that our ability to take deductions for interest payments is subject to limitations. The impact of the Tax Act will likely be subject to ongoing technical guidance and accounting interpretation, which we will continue to monitor and assess. As we expand the scale of our international business activities, any changes in the U.S. or foreign taxation of such activities may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Additionally, the application of U.S. federal, state, local, and international tax laws to services provided electronically is unclear and continually evolving. Existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted or applied adversely to us, possibly with retroactive effect, which could require us or our paying customers to pay additional tax amounts, as well as require us or our paying customers to pay fines or penalties, as well as interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes due from our paying customers, we could be held liable for such costs, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations and harming our business.
As a multinational organization, we may be subject to taxation in several jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, which could harm our liquidity and results of operations. In addition, the authorities in these jurisdictions could review our tax returns and impose additional tax, interest, and penalties, and the authorities could claim that various withholding requirements apply to us or assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us, any of which could harm us and our results of operations.
Our results of operations may be harmed if we are required to collect sales or other related taxes for subscriptions to our products and services in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so.
States and some local taxing jurisdictions have differing rules and regulations governing sales and use taxes, and these rules and regulations are subject to varying interpretations that may change over time. The application of federal, state, local, and international tax laws to services provided electronically is evolving. In particular, the applicability of sales taxes to our products and services in various jurisdictions is unclear. We collect and remit U.S. sales and value-added tax (“VAT”), in a number of jurisdictions. It is possible, however, that we could face sales tax or VAT audits and that our liability for these taxes could exceed our estimates as state tax authorities could still assert that we are obligated to collect additional tax amounts from our paying customers and remit those taxes to those authorities. We could also be subject to audits in states and international jurisdictions for which we have not accrued tax liabilities. A successful assertion that we should be collecting additional sales or other taxes on our services in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so and do not accrue for sales taxes could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales, discourage


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organizations from subscribing to our products and services, or otherwise harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Further, one or more state or foreign authorities could seek to impose additional sales, use, or other tax collection and record-keeping obligations on us or may determine that such taxes should have, but have not been, paid by us. Liability for past taxes may also include substantial interest and penalty charges. Any successful action by state, foreign, or other authorities to compel us to collect and remit sales tax, use tax, or other taxes, either retroactively, prospectively, or both, could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We have a substantial amount of debt, which could adversely affect our financial position and our ability to raise additional capital and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our obligations.
As of December 31, 2019, on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the Reorganization Transactions and the Offering Transactions, we would have had total outstanding indebtedness of approximately $         million consisting primarily of outstanding borrowings under our secured credit facilities. Additionally, we would have had $100.0 million of availability under our first lien revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2019. Our substantial indebtedness may:
make it difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations, including with respect to our indebtedness;
limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
require us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments instead of other purposes, thereby reducing the amount of cash flow available for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general business purposes;
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including under our secured credit facilities, are at variable rates of interest;
limit our ability to pay dividends;
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared with our less-leveraged competitors;
increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic, competitive, and industry conditions; and
increase our cost of borrowing.
In addition, the credit agreements governing our secured credit facilities contain, and the agreements governing our future indebtedness may contain, restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. These restrictive covenants include, among others, limitations on our ability to pay dividends or make other distributions in respect of, or repurchase or redeem, capital stock, prepay, redeem, or repurchase certain debt, make acquisitions, investments, loans, and advances, or sell or otherwise dispose of assets. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our debt.
Furthermore, we may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of the credit agreements governing our indebtedness limit, but do not prohibit, us from incurring additional indebtedness, and the additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. These restrictions will also not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute “Indebtedness” as defined in the agreements governing our indebtedness. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could intensify.


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We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments due on our debt obligations or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic, industry, and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory, and other factors beyond our control, including those discussed elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section. Our total scheduled principal repayments of debt made in 2019 and 2018 were $6.5 million and $3.7 million, respectively. Our total interest expense, net for 2019 and 2018 was $102.4 million and $58.2 million, respectively. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flow sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to implement any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The credit agreements governing our secured credit facilities restrict, and the agreements governing our future indebtedness may restrict, our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due. In addition, under the covenants of the credit agreements governing our secured credit facilities, ZoomInfo OpCo is restricted from making certain payments, including dividend payments to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., subject to certain exceptions.
If we cannot make payments on our debt obligations, we will be in default and all outstanding principal and interest on our debt may be declared due and payable, the lenders under our secured credit facilities could terminate their commitments to loan money, our secured lenders (including the lenders under our secured credit facilities) could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. In addition, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under one debt instrument could result in an event of default under one or more of our other debt instruments.
Interest rate fluctuations may affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Because a substantial portion of our debt is variable-rate debt, fluctuations in interest rates could have a material effect on our business. We currently utilize, and may in the future utilize, derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps to hedge some of our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, but such instruments may not be effective in reducing our exposure to interest fluctuations, and we may discontinue utilizing them at any time. As a result, we may incur higher interest costs if interest rates increase. These higher interest costs could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and the levels of cash we maintain for working capital.
In addition, our variable rate indebtedness uses the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a benchmark for establishing the rate of interest and may be hedged with LIBOR-based interest rate derivatives. LIBOR is the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms and other pressures may cause LIBOR to be replaced with a new benchmark or to perform differently than in the past. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted but could include an increase in the cost of our variable rate indebtedness.
Change in our credit ratings could adversely impact our operations and lower our profitability.
Credit rating agencies continually revise their ratings for the companies that they follow, including us. Credit rating agencies also evaluate our industry as a whole and may change their credit ratings for us based on their overall view of our industry. Failure to maintain our credit ratings on long-term and short-term indebtedness could increase our cost of borrowing, reduce our ability to obtain intra-day borrowing, which we may need to operate our business, and adversely impact our results of operations.


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Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company, its only material asset after completion of this offering will be its interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which is a holding company whose only material asset after the completion of this offering will be its interest in ZoomInfo OpCo, and ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is accordingly dependent upon distributions from ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo to pay taxes, make payments under the tax receivable agreement, and pay dividends.
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and after completion of this offering will have no material assets other than its ownership of HoldCo Units. ZoomInfo HoldCo will be a holding company, and after completion of this offering will have no material assets other than its ownership of LLC Units. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. has no independent means of generating revenue. The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo that will be in effect at the time of this offering provides that certain distributions to cover the taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and the other holders of LLC Units and Class P Units will be made based upon assumed tax rates and other assumptions provided in the limited liability company agreement (such distributions, “tax distributions”). Additionally, in the event ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. declares any cash dividend, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will make distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., in an amount sufficient to cover such cash dividends declared by us. Deterioration in the financial condition, earnings or cash flow of ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries for any reason could limit or impair their ability to pay such distributions. Additionally, to the extent that ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. needs funds, and ZoomInfo OpCo or ZoomInfo HoldCo is restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of our financing arrangements, or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.
We anticipate that ZoomInfo OpCo will continue to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, generally will not be subject to any entity-level U.S. federal income tax. Instead, taxable income will be allocated to holders of LLC Units. Accordingly, the ZoomInfo Tax Group will be required to pay income taxes on our allocable share of any net taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo. Recently enacted legislation that is effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 may impute liability for adjustments to a partnership’s tax return on the partnership itself in certain circumstances, absent an election to the contrary. ZoomInfo OpCo may be subject to material liabilities pursuant to this legislation and related guidance if, for example, its calculations of taxable income are incorrect. In addition, the income taxes on the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of ZoomInfo OpCo’s net taxable income will increase over time as our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders continue to exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of our Class A common stock. Such increase in our tax expenses may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Distributions from ZoomInfo OpCo may in certain periods exceed our liabilities, including tax liabilities, and obligations to make payments under the tax receivable agreement. Our board of directors, in its sole discretion, will make any determination from time to time with respect to the use of any such excess cash so accumulated, which may include, among other uses, to acquire additional newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo at a per unit price determined by reference to the market value of the Class A common stock, to pay dividends, which may include special dividends, on its Class A common stock, to fund repurchases of its Class A common stock, or any combination of the foregoing. We will have no obligation to distribute such cash (or other available cash other than any declared dividend) to our stockholders. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
We have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock. Payments of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our business, operating results, and financial condition, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion, and any legal or contractual limitations on our ability to pay dividends. Our existing secured credit facilities include and any financing arrangement that we enter into in the future may include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends. In addition, ZoomInfo OpCo is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a member to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of ZoomInfo OpCo (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets. Subsidiaries of ZoomInfo OpCo are generally subject to similar legal limitations on their ability to make distributions to ZoomInfo OpCo.


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be required to pay our pre-IPO owners for most of the benefits relating to any additional tax depreciation or amortization deductions that we may claim as a result of the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering, the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s increase in its allocable share of existing tax basis, and anticipated tax basis adjustments the ZoomInfo Tax Group receives in connection with sales or exchanges of LLC Units after this offering, and certain other tax attributes .
Prior to the completion of this offering, we will enter into a tax receivable agreement with certain of our pre-IPO owners (including pre-IPO owners of the Blocker Companies) that provides for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to such pre-IPO owners of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of (i) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering, (ii) increases in the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of the ZoomInfo Tax Group as a result of sales or exchanges of LLC Units for shares of Class A common stock after this offering, and (iii) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes of the Blocker Companies (including the Blocker Companies’ allocable share of existing tax basis), and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement. These increases in existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments generated over time may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and, therefore, may reduce the amount of tax that ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. would otherwise be required to pay in the future, although the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) may challenge all or part of the validity of that tax basis, and a court could sustain such a challenge. Actual tax benefits realized by the ZoomInfo Tax Group may differ from tax benefits calculated under the tax receivable agreement as a result of the use of certain assumptions in the tax receivable agreement, including the use of an assumed weighted-average state and local income tax rate to calculate tax benefits. The payment obligation under the tax receivable agreement is an obligation of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and not of ZoomInfo OpCo. While the amount of existing tax basis, the anticipated tax basis adjustments, and the actual amount and utilization of tax attributes, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the tax receivable agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges, the price of shares of our Class A common stock at the time of exchanges, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable, and the amount and timing of our income, we expect that as a result of the size of the transfers and increases in the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of ZoomInfo OpCo and our possible utilization of tax attributes, including existing tax basis acquired at the time of this offering, the payments that ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. may make under the tax receivable agreement will be substantial. We estimate the amount of existing tax basis with respect to which our pre-IPO owners will be entitled to receive payments under the tax receivable agreement (assuming all Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) on the date of this offering) is approximately $                    million. The payments under the tax receivable agreement are not conditioned upon continued ownership of us by the exchanging holders of LLC Units or the prior owners of the Blocker Companies. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement.”
In certain cases, payments under the tax receivable agreement may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual benefits the ZoomInfo Tax Group realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the tax receivable agreement.
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.’s payment obligations under the tax receivable agreement may be accelerated in the event of certain changes of control and will be accelerated in the event it elects to terminate the tax receivable agreement early. The accelerated payments will relate to all relevant tax attributes that would subsequently be available to the ZoomInfo Tax Group. The accelerated payments required in such circumstances will be calculated by reference to the present value (at a discount rate equal to the lesser of (i) 6.5% per annum and (ii) one year LIBOR, or its successor rate, plus 100 basis points) of all future payments that holders of LLC Units or other recipients would have been entitled to receive under the tax receivable agreement, and such accelerated payments and any other future payments under the tax receivable agreement will utilize certain valuation assumptions, including that the ZoomInfo Tax Group will have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the deductions arising from the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits related to entering into the tax receivable agreement and sufficient taxable income to fully utilize any remaining net operating losses subject to the tax receivable agreement on a straight line basis over the shorter of the statutory expiration period for such net operating losses and the five-year period after the early termination or change of control. In addition, recipients of payments under the tax receivable agreement will not reimburse us for any payments previously made under the tax receivable agreement if such tax basis and the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes is successfully challenged by the IRS (although any such detriment would be taken into account


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in future payments under the tax receivable agreement). The ZoomInfo Tax Group’s ability to achieve benefits from any existing tax basis, tax basis adjustments or other tax attributes, and the payments to be made under the tax receivable agreement, will depend upon a number of factors, including the timing and amount of our future income. As a result, even in the absence of a change of control or an election to terminate the tax receivable agreement, payments under the tax receivable agreement could be in excess of 85% of the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s actual cash tax benefits.
Accordingly, it is possible that the actual cash tax benefits realized by the ZoomInfo Tax Group may be significantly less than the corresponding tax receivable agreement payments or that payments under the tax receivable agreement may be made years in advance of the actual realization, if any, of the anticipated future tax benefits. There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if the payments under the tax receivable agreement exceed the actual cash tax benefits that ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the tax receivable agreement and/or payments to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. by ZoomInfo HoldCo are not sufficient to permit ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to make payments under the tax receivable agreement after it has paid taxes and other expenses. Based upon certain assumptions described in greater detail below under “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement,” we estimate that if ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. were to exercise its termination right immediately following this offering, the aggregate amount of these termination payments would be approximately $  million. The foregoing number is merely an estimate and the actual payments could differ materially. We may need to incur additional indebtedness to finance payments under the tax receivable agreement to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the tax receivable agreement as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise, and these obligations could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations, or other changes of control.
The acceleration of payments under the tax receivable agreement in the case of certain changes of control may impair our ability to consummate change of control transactions or negatively impact the value received by owners of our Class A common stock.
In the case of certain changes of control, payments under the tax receivable agreement may be accelerated and may significantly exceed the actual benefits ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the tax receivable agreement. We expect that the payments that we may make under the tax receivable agreement in the event of a change of control will be substantial. As a result, our accelerated payment obligations and/or the assumptions adopted under the tax receivable agreement in the case of a change of control may impair our ability to consummate change of control transactions or negatively impact the value received by owners of our Class A common stock in a change of control transaction.
If we were deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), as a result of our ownership of ZoomInfo HoldCo, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Under Sections 3(a)(1)(A) and (C) of the 1940 Act, a company generally will be deemed to be an “investment company” for purposes of the 1940 Act if  (i) it is, or holds itself out as being, engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities or (ii) it engages, or proposes to engage, in the business of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding, or trading in securities and it owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of its total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. We do not believe that we are an “investment company,” as such term is defined in either of those sections of the 1940 Act.
As the sole managing member of ZoomInfo HoldCo, we will control and operate ZoomInfo HoldCo. As the sole managing member of ZoomInfo OpCo, ZoomInfo HoldCo will control and operate ZoomInfo OpCo. On that basis, we believe that neither our interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo nor ZoomInfo HoldCo’s interest in ZoomInfo OpCo is an “investment security” as that term is used in the 1940 Act. However, if we were to cease participation in the management of ZoomInfo HoldCo, if ZoomInfo HoldCo were to cease participation in the management of ZoomInfo OpCo, or if ZoomInfo OpCo itself becomes an investment company, our interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo or ZoomInfo HoldCo’s interest in ZoomInfo OpCo, as applicable, could be deemed an “investment security” for purposes of the 1940 Act.
We, ZoomInfo HoldCo, and ZoomInfo OpCo intend to conduct our operations so that we will not be deemed an investment company. If it were established that we were an unregistered investment company, there would be a risk


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that we would be subject to monetary penalties and injunctive relief in an action brought by the SEC, that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties, and that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions undertaken during the period it was established that we were an unregistered investment company. If we were required to register as an investment company, restrictions imposed by the 1940 Act, including limitations on our capital structure and our ability to transact with affiliates, could make it impractical for us to continue our business as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
The parties to our stockholders agreement control us, and their interests may conflict with ours or yours in the future.
Immediately following this offering and the application of net proceeds therefrom, the parties to our stockholders agreement will beneficially own approximately      % of the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock, with each share of Class A common stock entitling the holder to one vote and each share of Class B common stock entitling the holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally (or      % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). Moreover, we will agree to nominate to our board of directors individuals designated by TA Associates, Carlyle, and our Founders in accordance with our stockholders agreement. TA Associates, Carlyle, and our Founders will each retain the right to designate directors for so long as they beneficially own at least 5% of the voting power of all shares of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of our directors. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Stockholders Agreement.” Even when the parties to our stockholders agreement cease to own shares of our stock representing a majority of the total voting power, for so long as the parties to our stockholders agreement continue to own a significant percentage of our stock, they will still be able to significantly influence or effectively control the composition of our board of directors and the approval of actions requiring stockholder approval through their voting power. Accordingly, for such period of time, the parties to our stockholders agreement will have significant influence with respect to our management, business plans, and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers. In particular, for so long as the parties to our stockholders agreement continue to own a significant percentage of our stock, the parties to our stockholders agreement will be able to cause or prevent a change of control of our Company or a change in the composition of our board of directors, and could preclude any unsolicited acquisition of our Company. The concentration of ownership could deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your shares of Class A common stock as part of a sale of our Company and ultimately might affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
In addition, immediately following this offering and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders will own      % of the LLC Units (or      % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). Because they hold their ownership interest in our business directly in ZoomInfo OpCo, rather than through ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders may have conflicting interests with holders of shares of our Class A common stock. For example, if ZoomInfo OpCo makes distributions through ZoomInfo HoldCo to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the non-managing members of ZoomInfo OpCo will also be entitled to receive such distributions pro rata in accordance with the percentages of their respective limited liability company interests in ZoomInfo OpCo and their preferences as to the timing and amount of any such distributions may differ from those of our public stockholders. Our pre-IPO owners may also have different tax positions from us that could influence their decisions regarding whether and when to dispose of assets, especially in light of the existence of the tax receivable agreement that we will enter in connection with this offering, whether and when to incur new or refinance existing indebtedness and whether and when ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. should terminate the tax receivable agreement and accelerate its obligations thereunder. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration our pre-IPO owners’ tax or other considerations even where no similar benefit would accrue to us. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement.”


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Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will not limit the ability of our Sponsors to compete with us, and they and certain of our executive officers may have investments in businesses whose interests conflict with ours.
Our Sponsors and their respective affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities, including investments in businesses that may compete with us. In the ordinary course of their business activities, our Sponsors and their respective affiliates may engage in activities where their interests conflict with our interests or those of our stockholders. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that none of our Sponsors or any of their respective affiliates or any of our directors who are not employed by us (including any non-employee director who serves as one of our officers in both his or her director and officer capacities) or his or her affiliates will have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. See “Description of Capital Stock—Conflicts of Interest.” Our Sponsors and their respective affiliates also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. In addition, our Sponsors may have an interest in our pursuing acquisitions, divestitures, and other transactions that, in their judgment, could enhance their investment, even though such transactions might involve risks to us and our stockholders.
Upon the listing of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq rules and, as a result, will qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions and relief from certain corporate governance requirements. You will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
After the completion of this offering, certain affiliates of TA Associates, Carlyle and our Founders will beneficially own approximately      % of the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock (or      % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) and will be parties to a stockholders agreement described in “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Stockholders Agreement.” As a result, we will be a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under these corporate governance standards, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power in the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. For example, controlled companies are not required to have:
a board that is composed of a majority of “independent directors,” as defined under the Nasdaq rules;
a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors; and
director nominations be made, or recommended to the full board of directors, by its independent directors, or by a nominations/governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors.
Following this offering, we intend to utilize these exemptions. Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the Nasdaq.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Class A common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted by SEC rules to (and plan to) rely on exemptions and relief from certain reporting requirements that are applicable to other SEC-registered public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions and relief include (i) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of SOX, (ii) not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the PCAOB regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, (iii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation, and (iv) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, the information we provide stockholders will be different than the information that is available with respect to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. In this prospectus, we have not included all of the executive compensation-related information that would be required if we were not an emerging growth company.


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In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.
We may remain an emerging growth company until the fiscal year-end following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this initial public offering, though we may cease to be an emerging growth company earlier under certain circumstances, including (1) if our gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion in any fiscal year, (2) if we become a large accelerated filer, with at least $700.0 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates, or (3) if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible notes in any three-year period.
We cannot predict whether investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions and relief. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock and our stock price may decline and/or be more volatile.
We will incur increased costs and become subject to additional regulations and requirements as a result of becoming a public company, which could impair our profitability, make it more difficult to run our business, or divert management’s attention from our business.
As a public company, and particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company, we will be required to commit significant resources and management time and attention to the requirements of being a public company, which will cause us to incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we have not incurred as a private company, including costs associated with public company reporting requirements and recruiting and retaining independent directors. We also have incurred and will continue to incur costs associated with SOX and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and related rules implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq, and compliance with these requirements will place significant demands on our legal, accounting, and finance staff and on our accounting, financial, and information systems. The expenses incurred by public companies generally for reporting and corporate governance purposes have been increasing. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly, although we are currently unable to estimate these costs with any degree of certainty. In addition, we might not be successful in implementing these requirements. These laws and regulations also could make it more difficult or costly for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we may be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. These laws and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or board committees or as our executive officers. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of our Class A common stock, fines, sanctions, and other regulatory action and potentially civil litigation.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they downgrade their recommendations regarding our Class A common stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Class A common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. If any of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or our industry, or the stock of any of our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our Class A common stock may decline. If analysts cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the price or trading volume of our Class A common stock to decline and our Class A common stock to be less liquid.


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There may not be an active trading market for shares of our Class A common stock, which may cause shares of our Class A common stock to trade at a discount from their initial offering price and make it difficult to sell the shares of Class A common stock you purchase.
Prior to this offering, there has not been a public trading market for shares of our Class A common stock. The initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock will be determined by agreement among us and the representatives of the underwriters, and may not be indicative of the price at which shares of our Class A common stock will trade in the public market after this offering. We cannot predict the extent to which investor interest in our Class A common stock will lead to the development of an active trading market on the Nasdaq or how liquid that market might become. An active public market for our Class A common stock may not develop or be sustained after the offering. If an active public market does not develop or is not sustained, it may be difficult for you to sell your shares of Class A common stock at a price that is attractive to you, or at all. The market price of our Class A common stock may decline below the initial public offering price, and you may not be able to sell your shares of our Class A common stock at or above the price you paid in this offering, or at all.
We cannot predict the impact our dual class structure may have on the market price of our Class A common stock.
We cannot predict whether our dual class structure, combined with the concentrated control of our stockholders who held our capital stock prior to the completion of this offering, including our Sponsors, executive officers, employees, and directors and their affiliates, will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A common stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. In addition, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple class share structures in certain of their indexes. For example, in July 2017, FTSE Russell and Standard & Poor’s announced that they would cease to allow most newly public companies utilizing dual or multi-class capital structures to be included in their indices. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in any of these indices. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indexes, exclusion from stock indexes would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.
The disparity in the voting rights among the classes of common stock may have a potential adverse effect on the price of our Class A common stock.
Each share of our Class A common stock will entitle its holder to one vote on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights but each share will entitle its holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Class B common stock will be held by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders, including the Sponsors and the Founders, and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders. The difference in voting rights could adversely affect the value of our Class A common stock by, for example, delaying or deferring a change of control or if investors view, or any potential future purchaser of our company views, the superior voting rights of the Class B common stock to have value. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively will continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore be able to control all matters submitted to our shareholders so long as the Class B common stock represent at least 9.1% of all outstanding stock of our Class A and Class B common stock. This concentrated control will limit or preclude the ability of holders of Class A common stock to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future. For a description of our dual class structure, see “Description of Capital Stock.”
The market price of shares of our Class A common stock may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, which could cause the value of your investment to decline.
Even if a trading market develops, the market price of our Class A common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market, or political conditions, could reduce the market price of shares of our Class A common stock regardless of our operating performance. You may not be able to resell your shares


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of our Class A common stock at or above the initial public offering price due to a number of factors, such as those listed elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section and the following:
we, our competitors, or other comparable companies report operating results below the expectations of public market analysts and investors;
variations in our, our competitors’, or other comparable companies’ quarterly operating results or dividends, if any, to stockholders;
guidance, if any, that we, our competitors, or other comparable companies provide to the public, any changes in this guidance, or failure to meet this guidance;
failure by us or others in our industry to meet analysts’ earnings estimates;
publication of research reports about our industry;
adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or securities we may issue in the future;
changes in market valuations of similar companies or speculation in the press or investment community;
declines in the market prices of stocks generally, particularly those of similar companies;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
investor perceptions of, or the investment opportunity associated with, our Class A common stock relative to other investment alternatives;
announcements relating to litigation, government investigations, changes in laws, or changes in business or regulatory conditions, or differing interpretations or enforcement thereof;
changes in accounting principles;
adverse publicity about the industries we participate in; or
individual scandals.
Furthermore, the stock market may experience extreme volatility that, in some cases, may be unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our Class A common stock is low.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources, regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
Investors in this offering will suffer immediate and substantial dilution.
The initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock will be substantially higher than our pro forma net tangible book value per share immediately after this offering. As a result, you will pay a price per share of Class A common stock that substantially exceeds the per share book value of our tangible assets after subtracting our liabilities. In addition, you will pay more for your shares of Class A common stock than the amounts paid for the LLC Units by the pre-IPO owners. See “Dilution.”


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You may be diluted by the future issuance of additional Class A common stock or LLC Units in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions, or otherwise.
After this offering, we will have                         shares of Class A common stock authorized but unissued, including                         shares of Class A common stock issuable upon exchange of LLC Units or HoldCo Units that will be held by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders or the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, respectively. Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue these shares of Class A common stock and options, rights, warrants, and appreciation rights relating to Class A common stock for the consideration and on the terms and conditions established by our board of directors in its sole discretion, whether in connection with acquisitions or otherwise. Similarly, the amended and restated limited liability company agreements of ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo permit ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo to issue an unlimited number of additional limited liability company interests of ZoomInfo OpCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo, respectively, with designations, preferences, rights, powers, and duties that are different from, and may be senior to, those applicable to the LLC Units or the HoldCo Units, as applicable, and which may be exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock. Additionally, we have reserved an aggregate of                         shares of Class A common stock for issuance under the 2020 Plan. Any Class A common stock that we issue, including under the 2020 Plan or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future, would dilute the percentage ownership held by the investors who purchase Class A common stock in this offering.
We may issue preferred stock whose terms could adversely affect the voting power or value of our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will authorize us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations, and relative rights, including preferences over our Class A common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our Class A common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the Class A common stock.
If we or our pre-IPO owners sell additional shares of our Class A common stock after this offering or are perceived by the public markets as intending to sell them, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline.
The sale of substantial amounts of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell shares of our Class A common stock in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. Upon completion of this offering, we will have a total of                       shares of our Class A common stock outstanding (or                       shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock). All of the shares of our Class A common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), by persons other than our “affiliates,” as that term is defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act (“Rule 144”). The remaining                       shares of our Class A common stock held by our affiliates, including our directors, executive officers and other affiliates (including our Sponsors), after this offering may be sold only in compliance with the limitations described in “Shares Eligible for Future Sale.”
In addition, under the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo, the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders (or certain permitted transferees) will have the right, after the completion of this offering (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement), to exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments. Under the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo, the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders (or certain permitted transferees) will have the right, after the completion of this offering (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement), to exchange their HoldCo Units for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments. Upon completion of this offering (subject to the terms of the applicable limited liability company agreement), an


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aggregate of                        LLC Units and an aggregate of                    HoldCo Units may be exchanged for shares of our Class A common stock. Any shares we issue upon exchange of LLC Units or HoldCo Units, as applicable, will be “restricted securities” as defined in Rule 144 and may not be sold in the absence of registration under the Securities Act unless an exemption from registration is available, including the exemptions contained in Rule 144. We, our executive officers, our directors, and the holders of substantially all of our LLC Units, have agreed, subject to certain exceptions, not to dispose of or hedge any shares of our Class A common stock (including shares issued upon exchange of LLC Units or HoldCo Units, as applicable) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock, including our Class B common stock, for 180 days from the date of this prospectus, except with the representatives’ prior written consent. See “Underwriting.”
Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, pursuant to the terms of the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo, the holders of          Class P Units, which have a weighted-average per unit distribution threshold of $          per Class P Unit, will be able to exchange their Class P Units into shares of out Class A common stock, as described in “Organizational Structure—Reclassification and Amendment and Restatement of Limited Liability Company Agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
Upon the expiration of the lock-up agreements described above, all of such shares will be eligible for resale in the public market, subject, in the case of shares held by our affiliates, to volume, manner of sale, and other limitations under Rule 144. We expect that certain of our Sponsors will continue to be considered affiliates following the expiration of the lock-up period based on their expected share ownership and their board nomination rights. Certain other of our stockholders may also be considered affiliates at that time.
However, subject to the expiration or waiver of the 180-day lock-up period, the holders of these shares of Class A common stock (including shares issued upon exchange of LLC Units or HoldCo Units, as applicable) will have the right, subject to certain exceptions and conditions, to require us to register their shares of Class A common stock under the Securities Act, and they will have the right to participate in future registrations of securities by us. Following completion of this offering, the shares covered by registration rights would represent approximately          % of our total Class A common stock outstanding (or          shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock). Registration of any of these outstanding shares of Class A common stock would result in such shares becoming freely tradable without compliance with Rule 144 upon effectiveness of the registration statement. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale—Registration Rights” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Registration Rights Agreement.”
We intend to file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of our Class A common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock issued pursuant to the 2020 Plan. Any such Form S-8 registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements will be available for sale in the open market. We expect that the initial registration statement on Form S-8 will cover                     shares of our Class A common stock.
In the future, we may also issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The number of shares of our Class A common stock (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock) issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of Class A common stock. As restrictions on resale end, the market price of our shares of Class A common stock could drop significantly if the holders of these restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of our Class A common stock or other securities or to use our Class A common stock as consideration for acquisitions of other businesses, investments, or other corporate purposes.


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Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that you might consider favorable.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws that will become effective immediately prior to the consummation of this offering will contain provisions that may make a merger with or acquisition of our Company more difficult without the approval of our board of directors. Among other things, these provisions:
provide that our board of directors will be divided into three classes, as nearly equal in size as possible, with directors in each class serving three-year terms and with terms of the directors of only one class expiring in any given year;
provide for the removal of directors only for cause and only upon the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66% in voting power of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote if the parties to our stockholders agreement beneficially own less than 50% of the total voting power of all then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors;
would allow us to authorize the issuance of shares of one or more series of preferred stock, including in connection with a stockholder rights plan, financing transactions, or otherwise, the terms of which series may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval, and which may include super voting, special approval, dividend, or other rights or preferences superior to the rights of the holders of common stock;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent by holders of Class A common stock from and after the date on which the parties to our stockholders agreement cease to beneficially own at least 50% of the total voting power of all then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors unless such action is recommended by all directors then in office;
provide for certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;
provide (i) that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter, or repeal our bylaws and (ii) that our stockholders may only amend our bylaws with the approval of 66% or more of all of then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote if the parties to our stockholders agreement beneficially own less than 50% of the total voting power of all then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors;
provide that certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation may be amended only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66% in voting power of then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote if the parties to our stockholders agreement beneficially own less than 50% of the total voting power of all then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors; and
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.
Further, as a Delaware corporation, we are subject to provisions of Delaware law, which may impede or discourage a takeover attempt that our stockholders may find beneficial. These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions under Delaware law could discourage, delay, or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our Company, including actions that our stockholders may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of our Class A common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire. For further discussion of these and other such anti-takeover provisions, see “Description of Capital Stock—Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws and Certain Provisions of Delaware Law.”


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Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees, or other stockholders.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, any (i) derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, stockholder or employee of ours to us or our stockholders, (iii) action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or (iv) action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, the federal district court of the State of Delaware. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. To the fullest extent permitted by law, any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This choice-of-forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a different judicial forum, including one that it may find favorable or convenient for a specified class of disputes with us or our directors, officers, other stockholders, or employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, our operations and financial performance. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements are included throughout this prospectus, including in the sections entitled “Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Business,” and relate to matters such as our industry, business strategy, goals and expectations concerning our market position, future operations, margins, profitability, capital expenditures, liquidity and capital resources and other financial and operating information. In some cases, you can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seeks,” “predicts,” “intends,” “trends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates,” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words.
The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are based on management’s current expectations and are not guarantees of future performance. Our expectations, beliefs and projections are expressed in good faith and we believe there is a reasonable basis for them. However, there can be no assurance that management’s expectations, beliefs and projections will result or be achieved. Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks, uncertainties, assumptions or changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict or quantify. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors including:
larger well-funded companies shifting their existing business models to become more competitive with us;
our ability to provide or adapt our platform for changes in laws and regulations or public perception, or changes in the enforcement of such laws, relating to data privacy;
the effects of companies more effectively catering to our customers by offering more tailored products or platforms at lower costs;
adverse general economic and market conditions reducing spending on sales and marketing;
the effects of declining demand for sales and marketing subscription platforms;
our ability to improve our technology and keep up with new processes for data collection, organization, and cleansing;
our ability to provide a highly accurate, reliable, and comprehensive platform moving forward;
our reliance on third-party systems that we do not control to integrate with our system and our potential inability to continue to support integration;
our ability to adequately fund research and development potentially limiting introduction of new features, integrations, and enhancements;
our ability to attract new customers and expand existing subscriptions;
a decrease in participation in our contributory network or increased opt-out rates impacting the depth, breadth, and accuracy of our platform;
our failure to protect and maintain our brand and our ability to attract and retain customers; and
other factors described under “Risk Factors.”
These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this prospectus. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of our assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of them. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential


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impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, investments, or other strategic transactions we may make. You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.
Any forward-looking statement made by us in this prospectus speaks only as of the date of this prospectus. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise, except as required by law.


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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
This prospectus includes market and industry data and forecasts that we have derived from independent consultant reports, publicly available information, various industry publications, other published industry sources, including S&P Global Market Intelligence (“Capital IQ”), Salesforce Research (“Salesforce.com”), Global Industry Analysts (“Global Industry Analysts, Inc.”), Sirius Decisions (“SiriusDecisions”), and Forrester Research, Inc. (“Forrester”), and our internal data and estimates, including data generated utilizing our ZoomInfo platform. Independent consultant reports, industry publications, and other published industry sources generally indicate that the information contained therein was obtained from sources believed to be reliable.
The source of certain statistical data, estimates, and forecasts contained in this prospectus are the following independent industry publications or reports:
B2B Sales and Marketing Intelligence Solutions Drive Improved Business Outcomes, a commissioned study conducted by Forrester Consulting on behalf of DiscoverOrg, August 2019;
State of Sales, Salesforce Research, July 2018;
S&P Global Capital IQ database, ©2019: S&P Global Market Intelligence;
Global Industry Analysts, Global Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software Industry Report, October 2019; and
Tracking the True Cost of Sales, Sirius Decisions, 2019.
Although we believe that these third-party sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information, and neither we nor the underwriters have independently verified this information. Some market data and statistical information are also based on our good faith estimates, which are derived from management’s knowledge of our industry and such independent sources referred to above. Certain market, ranking, and industry data included elsewhere in this prospectus, including the size of certain markets, our size or position, and the positions of our competitors within these markets, including our services relative to our competitors, are based on estimates of our management. These estimates have been derived from our management’s knowledge and experience in the markets in which we operate, as well as information obtained from surveys, reports by market research firms, our customers, distributors, suppliers, trade and business organizations, and other contacts in the markets in which we operate and have not been verified by independent sources. Unless otherwise noted, all of our market share and market position information presented in this prospectus is an approximation. Our market share and market position in each of our lines of business, unless otherwise noted, is based on our sales relative to the estimated sales in the markets we served. References herein to our being a leader in a market or product category refer to our belief that we have a leading market share position in each specified market, unless the context otherwise requires. As there are no publicly available sources supporting this belief, it is based solely on our internal analysis of our sales as compared to our estimates of sales of our competitors. In addition, the discussion herein regarding our various end markets is based on how we define the end markets for our products, which products may be either part of larger overall end markets or end markets that include other types of products and services.
Our internal data and estimates are based upon information obtained from trade and business organizations and other contacts in the markets in which we operate and our management’s understanding of industry conditions. Although we believe that such information is reliable, we have not had this information verified by any independent sources.


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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Organizational Structure Prior to this Offering and the Transactions
The diagram below depicts our current organizational structure. This chart is provided for illustrative purposes only and does not purport to represent all legal entities within our organizational structure.
https://cdn.kscope.io/f430817747c4aac0cc27a1dd3f8e175e-organizationalstructure1c.jpg
________________
(1)
ZoomInfo LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg, LLC) serves as the borrower under our secured credit facilities. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
Organizational Structure Following this Offering and the Transactions
Immediately following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be a holding company, and its sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which will be a holding company whose sole material asset will be a controlling equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will operate and control all of the business and affairs of ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo and, through ZoomInfo OpCo and its subsidiaries, conduct our business. Following this offering, ZoomInfo OpCo will be the predecessor of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for financial reporting purposes. As a result, the consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will recognize the assets and liabilities received in the reorganization at their historical carrying amounts, as reflected in the historical consolidated financial statements of ZoomInfo OpCo, the accounting predecessor. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will consolidate ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo in its consolidated financial statements and record a non-controlling interest related to the LLC Units held by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders on its consolidated balance sheet and statement of income.
The Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold all of the issued and outstanding shares of our Class B common stock. The shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. The voting power afforded to holders of LLC Units or HoldCo Units by their shares of Class B common stock is automatically and correspondingly reduced as they exchange


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LLC Units or HoldCo Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo or ZoomInfo HoldCo, as applicable. If at any time the ratio at which LLC Units or HoldCo Units are exchangeable for shares of our Class A common stock changes from one-for-one as described under “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement” or “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement,” as applicable, the number of votes to which Class B common stockholders are entitled will be adjusted accordingly. Holders of shares of our Class B common stock will vote together with holders of our Class A common stock as a single class on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, except as otherwise required by law.
Our post-offering organizational structure is commonly referred to as an UP-C structure. This organizational structure will allow our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders to retain their equity ownership in ZoomInfo OpCo, an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of LLC Units. Investors in this offering and the Pre-IPO Shareholders will, by contrast, hold their equity ownership in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., a Delaware corporation that is a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of shares of Class A common stock. Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold their equity ownership in ZoomInfo HoldCo, an entity classified as a corporation for U.S.federal income tax purposes, in the form of HoldCo Units. We believe that our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders will generally find it advantageous to continue to hold their equity interests in an entity that is not taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes. One of these benefits is that future taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo that is allocated to our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders will be taxed on a flow-through basis and therefore will not be subject to corporate taxes at the entity level. Additionally, because our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders may redeem their LLC Units or HoldCo Units, respectively, for shares of our Class A common stock, our UP-C structure provides our Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders with potential liquidity that holders of non-publicly traded limited liability companies are not typically afforded. We do not believe that our UP-C structure will give rise to any significant business or strategic benefit or detriment to us.


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The diagram below depicts our organizational structure immediately following the consummation of the Offering Transactions and the Reorganization Transactions (assuming an offering price of $           per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and no exercise of over-allotment option by the underwriters). For purposes of depicting ownership of voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the below diagram takes into account shares of Class B common stock held by Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders. This chart is provided for illustrative purposes only and does not purport to represent all legal entities within our organizational structure.
https://cdn.kscope.io/f430817747c4aac0cc27a1dd3f8e175e-summary2s.jpg
________________
(1)
Each share of Class B common stock will provide the holder ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of


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common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally. Immediately following this offering, the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will collectively hold          % of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. For additional information, see “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock—Class B Common Stock.”
(2)
At the time of this offering,                    shares of Class A common stock would be issuable upon the exchange of                      Class P Units (assuming an offering price of $           per share of Class A common stock, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, and assuming such Class P Units are fully vested) that are held by the Continuing Class P Unitholders. For additional information, see “—Reclassification and Amendment and Restatement of Limited Liability Company Agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
(3)
ZoomInfo LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg, LLC) serves as the borrower under the secured credit facilities. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
Incorporation of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on November 14, 2019. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. has not engaged in any business or other activities except in connection with its formation. The amended and restated certificate of incorporation of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. authorizes two classes of common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock, each having the terms described in “Description of Capital Stock.”
Formation of ZoomInfo HoldCo
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. formed ZoomInfo HoldCo on February 25, 2020 as a new subsidiary and became the sole managing member of ZoomInfo HoldCo. Prior to the completion of this offering, ZoomInfo HoldCo will, in turn, become the sole managing member of ZoomInfo OpCo. Prior to the completion of this offering, certain pre-IPO owners will acquire interests in ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo will acquire LLC Units previously held directly or indirectly by such pre-IPO owners pursuant to the Blocker Mergers described below and in connection with the redemption of certain LLC Units.
Blocker Mergers
Prior to the completion of this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will form a new merger subsidiary with respect to each of the Blocker Companies, through which certain of our Pre-IPO Shareholders hold their interests in us, and each merger subsidiary will merge with and into the respective Blocker Companies in reverse subsidiary mergers, and the surviving entities will merge with and into ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. In the Blocker Mergers, the Pre-IPO Shareholders, as the 100% owners of the Blocker Companies, will receive (i)                      shares of newly issued Class A common stock and (ii) an aggregate cash amount equal to           shares of Class A common stock multiplied by the public offering price per share of Class A common stock, less the underwriting discount, in respect of reductions in such Pre-IPO Shareholders’ equity interests, and ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will acquire an equal number of outstanding LLC Units from the Pre-IPO Shareholders. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will contribute the LLC Units it receives in the Blocker Mergers to ZoomInfo HoldCo in exchange for a corresponding number of newly issued HoldCo Units.
Reclassification and Amendment and Restatement of Limited Liability Company Agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo
The capital structure of ZoomInfo OpCo currently consists of four different classes of limited partnership interests (Series A Preferred Units, Preferred, Common, and Class P). A portion of the proceeds from this offering will be used to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units. Prior to the completion of this offering, the limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo will be amended and restated to, among other things, modify its capital structure by reclassifying its outstanding preferred units and common units into a new class of units that we refer to as “LLC Units.” Class P Units that are held by Continuing Class P Unitholders will remain as Class P Units. Additionally, ZoomInfo OpCo will effect a -for-one reverse unit split. Immediately following the Reorganization Transactions but prior to the other Offering Transactions described below, there will be                      LLC Units issued and outstanding.
In connection with the Reclassification, all vested and unvested Class P Units (other than Class P Units held by Continuing Class P Unitholders) will be converted into vested and unvested Employee Units. The number of Employee Units delivered in respect of each Class P Unit will be determined based the amount of proceeds that would be distributed


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to such Class P Unit if the Company were to be sold at a value derived from the initial public offering price, and the intrinsic value of the Employee Units issued in respect of each Class P Unit will have an intrinsic value equal to the hypothetical proceeds such Class P Unit would have received. For additional information regarding the conversion of the Class P Units, see “Executive Compensation—Compensation Arrangements to be Adopted in Connection with this Offering—Conversion of Class P Units.”
Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo, ZoomInfo HoldCo will be the sole managing member of ZoomInfo OpCo. Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo Holdco, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will be the sole managing member of ZoomInfo HoldCo. Accordingly, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., through ZoomInfo HoldCo, will have the right to determine when distributions will be made to the members of ZoomInfo OpCo and the amount of any such distributions. If ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., through ZoomInfo HoldCo, authorizes a distribution, such distribution will be made to the members of ZoomInfo OpCo pro rata in accordance with the percentages of their respective limited liability company interests.
The holders of LLC Units in ZoomInfo OpCo, including ZoomInfo HoldCo, a member of the ZoomInfo Tax Group, will incur United States federal, state, and local income taxes on their allocable share of any taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo. The amended and restated limited liability company agreement provides for cash distributions to the holders of limited liability company interests in ZoomInfo OpCo if the taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo will give rise to taxable income for its members. In accordance with the amended and restated limited liability company agreement, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make pro rata (other than with respect to Class P Units) cash distributions to the holders of limited liability company interests in ZoomInfo OpCo for purposes of funding such holders’ tax obligations in respect of the income of ZoomInfo OpCo that is allocated to them. Generally, these tax distributions will be computed, other than with respect to Class P Units, based on an estimate of the taxable income of ZoomInfo OpCo allocated to the holder of LLC Units that receives the greatest proportionate allocation of income multiplied by an assumed tax rate. Tax distributions with respect to Class P Units will be determined based on the assumed tax liability of such Continuing Class P Unitholder with respect to such Class P Units rather than on a pro rata basis.
Pursuant to the amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo, the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders (and certain permitted transferees thereof) may (subject to the terms of such limited liability company agreement) exchange their LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. Subject to certain restrictions, the holders of Class P Units will have the right to exchange their vested Class P Units into a number of shares of Class A common stock that will generally be equal to (a) the product of the number of vested Class P Units to be exchanged with a given per unit distribution threshold and then-current difference between the per share value of a LLC Unit at the time of the exchange (based on the public trading price of Class A common stock) and the per unit distribution threshold of such Class P Units divided by (b) the per unit value of a LLC Unit at the time of the exchange (based on the public trading price of Class A common stock). ZoomInfo HoldCo may impose restrictions on exchange that it determines in good faith to be necessary so that ZoomInfo OpCo is not treated as a “publicly traded partnership” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo will also provide that a holder of LLC Units will not have the right to exchange LLC Units if ZoomInfo HoldCo determines that such exchange would be prohibited by law or regulation or would violate any agreements with ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. or its subsidiaries by which the holder of LLC Units is bound, or ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.’s insider trading policies. Upon such exchange, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will contribute the LLC Units it receives to ZoomInfo HoldCo in exchange for a corresponding number of newly issued HoldCo Units. As a holder exchanges LLC Units (together with a corresponding number of shares of Class B common stock) for shares of Class A common stock, the number of HoldCo Units held by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. in exchange for the exchanged LLC Units is correspondingly increased as it acquires the exchanged LLC Units. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement
Prior to this offering, we will amend and restate the limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo under which the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders (or certain of their permitted transferees) will have the right (subject to


74


the terms of such limited liability company agreement) to exchange their HoldCo Units for shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends, and reclassifications. The amended and restated limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo HoldCo will also provide that a holder of HoldCo Units will not have the right to exchange HoldCo Units if ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. determines that such exchange would be prohibited by law or regulation or would violate any agreements with ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. or its subsidiaries by which the holder of HoldCo Units is bound, or ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.’s insider trading policies. As a holder exchanges HoldCo Units for shares of Class A common stock, the number of HoldCo Units held by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is correspondingly increased as it acquires the exchanged HoldCo Units. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo HoldCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.”
Offering Transactions
At the time of the consummation of this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. intends to consummate the purchase, for cash, of newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo at a purchase price per unit equal to the initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering net of the underwriting discount. ZoomInfo HoldCo will, in turn, consummate the purchase, for cash, of newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo at a purchase price per unit equal to the initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering net of the underwriting discount. Assuming that the shares of Class A common stock to be sold in this offering are sold at $           per share, which is the midpoint of the range on the front cover of this prospectus, at the time of this offering, ZoomInfo HoldCo will purchase from ZoomInfo OpCo                    newly issued LLC Units for an aggregate of $                    (or                    newly issued LLC Units for an aggregate of $           if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). The issuance and sale of such newly issued LLC Units by ZoomInfo OpCo to ZoomInfo HoldCo will correspondingly dilute the ownership interests of our pre-IPO owners in ZoomInfo OpCo. See “Principal Stockholders” for more information regarding the proceeds from this offering that will be paid to our directors and named executive officers. In addition, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. intends to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering (including from any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock) (i) to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will purchase the same number of newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo, (ii) to purchase LLC Units from certain Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders; and (iii) to fund merger consideration payable to certain Pre-IPO Shareholders in connection with the Blocker Mergers. The foregoing purchases of HoldCo Units and LLC Units will be at a price per unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will contribute the LLC Units it receives in the Blocker Mergers to ZoomInfo HoldCo in exchange for a corresponding number of newly issued HoldCo Units. The number of outstanding LLC Units of ZoomInfo OpCo will equal the aggregate number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Following this offering, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will hold, indirectly through ZoomInfo HoldCo, a number of LLC Units that is equal to the number of shares of Class A common stock that it has issued, a relationship that we believe fosters transparency because it results in a single share of Class A common stock representing (albeit indirectly) the same percentage equity interest in ZoomInfo OpCo as a single LLC Unit.
Prior to the completion of this offering, we will enter into a tax receivable agreement with our pre-IPO owners that provides for the payment by ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. to such pre-IPO owners of 85% of the benefits, if any, that the ZoomInfo Tax Group is deemed to realize (calculated using certain assumptions) as a result of (i) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis acquired in this offering, (ii) increases in the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s allocable share of existing tax basis and tax basis adjustments that will increase the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of the ZoomInfo Tax Group as a result of sales or exchanges of LLC Units after this offering, and (iii) the ZoomInfo Tax Group’s utilization of certain tax attributes of the Blocker Companies (including the Blocker Companies’ allocable share of existing tax basis), and certain other tax benefits, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement. These increases in existing tax basis and the tax basis adjustments generated over time may increase (for tax purposes) depreciation and amortization deductions and, therefore, may reduce the amount of tax that the ZoomInfo Tax Group would otherwise be required to pay in the future. Actual tax benefits realized by the ZoomInfo Tax Group may differ from tax benefits calculated under the tax receivable agreement as a result of the use of certain assumptions in the tax receivable agreement, including the use of an assumed weighted-average state and local income tax rate to calculate tax benefits. This payment obligation is an obligation of ZoomInfo Technologies


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Inc. and not of ZoomInfo OpCo. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Tax Receivable Agreement.”
ZoomInfo OpCo expects to use the proceeds it receives through ZoomInfo HoldCo from this offering to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units, to repay our second lien term loans, and for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Purchase of LLC Units.”
We refer to the foregoing transactions as the “Offering Transactions.”
As a result of the transactions described above:
the investors in this offering will collectively own                      shares of our Class A common stock (or                     shares of Class A common stock if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock);
the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders will hold                      LLC Units, the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders will hold               HoldCo Units, the Continuing Class P Unitholders will hold          Class P Units and the Pre-IPO Shareholders will hold                     shares of our Class A common stock;
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. will hold                      HoldCo Units (or                      HoldCo Units if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock);
ZoomInfo HoldCo will hold                      LLC Units (or                      LLC Units if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock);
the investors in this offering will collectively have           % of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (or           % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock);
the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders, as holders of all of the outstanding shares of Class B common stock, will have           % of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (or           % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock); and
the Pre-IPO Shareholders will have           % of the voting power in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (or           % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).


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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that the net proceeds to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. from this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                     per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discount, will be approximately $           million (or $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock). A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                     per share would increase or decrease, as applicable, the net proceeds to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. from this offering by approximately $          million, assuming the number of shares offered by us remains the same as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and after deducting the estimated underwriting discount. ZoomInfo OpCo will bear or reimburse ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for all of the expenses payable by it in this offering. We estimate these offering expenses (excluding the underwriting discount) will be approximately $           million.
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. intends to use all of the net proceeds from this offering (including from any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock):
to purchase          newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo for approximately $          million (or          HoldCo Units for $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock), which in turn will purchase the same number of newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo,
to purchase          of LLC Units from certain Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders for approximately $          million (or          LLC Units for $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock); and
to fund $          million of merger consideration payable to certain Pre-IPO Shareholders in connection with the Blocker Mergers (or $          million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock).
The foregoing purchases of HoldCo Units and LLC Units will be made at a price per unit equal to the public offering price per share of Class A common stock in this offering, less the underwriting discount. The number of outstanding LLC Units of ZoomInfo OpCo will equal the aggregate number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock. See “Organizational Structure—Offering Transactions” and “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Purchase of LLC Units.”
We will only retain the net proceeds that are used to purchase newly issued HoldCo Units from ZoomInfo HoldCo which will, in turn, be used to purchase newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo. See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—Purchase of LLC Units.”
ZoomInfo OpCo expects to use the proceeds it receives through ZoomInfo HoldCo from this offering:
to redeem and cancel all outstanding Series A Preferred Units for approximately $          million, including accumulated but unpaid distributions and related prepayment premiums;
to repay approximately $          million aggregate principal amount of our second lien term loans, including related prepayment premiums and accrued interest. The second lien term loans provided for by our second lien credit agreement mature on February 1, 2027. Borrowings under the second lien credit agreement bear interest at a rate per annum equal to, at our option, either (A) a LIBOR rate determined by reference to the Reuters LIBOR rate for dollar deposits with a term equivalent to the interest rate relevant to such borrowing, as adjusted by reserve percentages established by the Federal Reserve (subject to a floor of 0.00%), plus an applicable margin or (B) a base rate determined by reference to highest of (i) 0.50% above the federal funds effective rate, (ii) the rate of interest established by the administrative agent as its “prime rate,” (iii) 1.0% above the adjusted LIBOR rate for dollar deposits with a one month term commencing that day and (iv) 1.00% per annum, plus an applicable margin. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness—Second Lien Credit Agreement.”; and
for general corporate purposes.


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We will not retain any of the net proceeds used to purchase LLC Units from Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders or to fund merger consideration for the Blocker Mergers.
If the net proceeds from this offering are greater than the estimated net proceeds set forth herein, we expect to use the additional proceeds for general corporate purposes. If the net proceeds from this offering are less than the estimated net proceeds set forth herein, we expect to reduce the amount of second lien term loan borrowings that will be repaid.


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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have no current plans to pay dividends on our Class A common stock. The declaration, amount, and payment of any future dividends on shares of Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors, and we may reduce or discontinue entirely the payment of such dividends at any time. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. Holders of our Class B common stock do not have any right to receive dividends or to receive a distribution upon a liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of HoldCo Units. ZoomInfo HoldCo is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of LLC Units. The limited liability company agreement of ZoomInfo OpCo that will be in effect at the time of this offering provides that certain distributions to cover the taxes of the ZoomInfo Tax Group and the other holders of LLC Units and Class P Units will be made based upon assumed tax rates and other assumptions provided in the limited liability company agreement (such distributions, “tax distributions”). See “Certain Relationships and Related Person Transactions—ZoomInfo OpCo Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement.” Additionally, in the event ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. declares any cash dividend, we intend to cause ZoomInfo HoldCo to cause ZoomInfo OpCo to make distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo, which in turn will make distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., in an amount sufficient to cover such cash dividends declared by us. If ZoomInfo OpCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo HoldCo and ZoomInfo HoldCo makes such distributions to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., the other holders of LLC Units, HoldCo Units and certain Class P Units will also be entitled to receive the respective equivalent pro rata distributions in accordance with the percentages of their respective limited liability company interests.
We anticipate that cash received by ZoomInfo HoldCo may, in certain periods, exceed its liabilities, including tax liabilities, and obligations to make payments under the tax receivable agreement. We expect that ZoomInfo HoldCo will use any such excess cash from time to time to acquire additional newly issued LLC Units from ZoomInfo OpCo at a per unit price determined by reference to the market value of the Class A common stock; to pay dividends, which may include special dividends, on its Class A common stock; to fund repurchases of its Class A common stock; or any combination of the foregoing. Our board of directors, in its sole discretion, will make any determination with respect to the use of any such excess cash. We also expect, if necessary, to undertake ameliorative actions, which may include pro rata or non-pro rata reclassifications, combinations, subdivisions, or adjustments of outstanding LLC Units, or declare a stock dividend on our Class A common stock of an aggregate number of additional newly issued shares that corresponds to the number of additional LLC Units that ZoomInfo HoldCo is acquiring, to maintain one-to-one parity between LLC Units and shares of Class A common stock. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure—ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is a holding company, its only material asset after completion of this offering will be its interest in ZoomInfo HoldCo, which is a holding company whose only material asset after the completion of this offering will be its interest in ZoomInfo OpCo, and ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. is accordingly dependent upon distributions from ZoomInfo OpCo through ZoomInfo HoldCo to pay taxes, make payments under the tax receivable agreement, and pay dividends.”
The agreements governing our secured credit facilities contain a number of covenants that restrict, subject to certain exceptions, certain of our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends to us. See “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
Any financing arrangements that we enter into in the future may include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends. In addition, ZoomInfo OpCo is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a member to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of ZoomInfo OpCo (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets. Subsidiaries of ZoomInfo OpCo are generally subject to similar legal limitations on their ability to make distributions to ZoomInfo OpCo.
Since its formation in November 2019, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. has not paid any dividends to holders of its outstanding common stock. In 2018 and 2019, ZoomInfo OpCo made cash distributions to equity partners in an aggregate amount of $93.4 million and $16.5 million, respectively.


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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our consolidated cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of December 31, 2019:
on a historical basis; and
on a pro forma basis giving effect to the transactions described under “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information,” including the sale by us of                    shares of Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                     per share (the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and the application of the proceeds therefrom as described in “Use of Proceeds.”
Cash and cash equivalents are not components of our total capitalization. You should read this table together with the other information contained in this prospectus, including “Organizational Structure,” “Use of Proceeds,” “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and our historical financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.
 
December 31, 2019
 
ZoomInfo OpCo Actual
 
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. Pro Forma(1) 
($ in millions, except share amounts)
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
41.4

 
$
 
Debt:
 
 
 
 
 
Revolving credit facility(2)
$

 
$
 
First lien term loans(3)
 
858.5

 
 
 
Second lien term loans(4)
 
370.0

 
 
 
Unamortized debt transaction costs and discounts
 
(25.2
)
 
 
 
Total debt
 
1,203.3

 
 
 
Series A Preferred Units(5)
 
200.2

 
 
Equity:
 
 
 
 
 
Members’ equity (deficit)
 
(207.8
)
 
 
Class A common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 1,000 shares authorized and no shares issued and outstanding, actual; and     shares authorized and     shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis
 

 
 
 
Class B common stock, $0.01 par value per share, 1,000 shares authorized and 100 shares issued and outstanding, actual; and     shares authorized and     shares issued and outstanding on a pro forma basis(6)
 

 
 
 
Additional paid-in capital
 

 
 
 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
 
(6.0
)
 
 
 
Non-controlling interest
 

 
 
 
Total equity
 
(213.8
)
 
 
 
Total capitalization
$
1,189.7

 
$
 
________________
(1)
To the extent we change the number of shares of Class A common stock sold by us in this offering from the shares we expect to sell or we change the initial public offering price from the $                     per share assumed initial public offering price, representing the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, or any combination of these events occurs, the net proceeds to us from this offering and each of as adjusted total equity and total capitalization may increase or decrease. A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price per share, assuming no change in the number of shares to be sold, would increase (decrease) the net proceeds that we receive in this offering and each of as adjusted total stockholders’ equity and total capitalization by approximately $                    . An increase (decrease) of 1,000,000 shares in the expected number of shares to be sold in the offering, assuming no change in the assumed initial offering price per


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share, would increase (decrease) our net proceeds from this offering and our as adjusted total equity and total capitalization by approximately $                    . If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock, the as adjusted amount of each of cash, additional paid-in capital, total equity, and total capitalization would increase by approximately $                    , after deducting the underwriting discount, and we would have                      shares of our Class A common stock issued and outstanding, as adjusted.
(2)
As of December 31, 2019, we had no borrowings and no outstanding letters of credit under our first lien revolving credit facility. For a further description of our first lien credit agreement, see “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
(3)
Represents the aggregate face amount of our first lien term loans, including current portion. Our first lien term loans mature on February 1, 2026. For a further description of our first lien credit agreement, see “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
(4)
Represents the aggregate face amount of our second lien term loans. Our second lien term loans mature on February 1, 2027. As of December 31, 2019, a payment of $376.8 million would have been made to repay all borrowings under our second lien term loans, including $3.7 million of prepayment premiums and accrued interest. For a further description of our second lien credit agreement, see “Description of Certain Indebtedness.”
(5)
As of December 31, 2019, $222.5 million aggregate liquidation preference of Series A Preferred Units was outstanding, with respect to which there were $15.5 million of accrued but unpaid distributions. As of December 31, 2019, the aggregate redemption price, including applicable premium and redemption price adjustments of $60.0 million, for the Series A Preferred Units would have been $282.5.
(6)
The shares of Class B common stock will have no economic rights but each share will entitle the holder to ten votes (for so long as the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned collectively by the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders represents at least 5% of our outstanding shares of common stock, and thereafter, one vote per share) on all matters on which stockholders of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. are entitled to vote generally.


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DILUTION
If you invest in shares of our Class A common stock in this offering, your investment will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock and the pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock after this offering. Dilution results from the fact that the per share offering price of the shares of Class A common stock is substantially in excess of the pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to the Class A common stock held by our pre-IPO owners.
Our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2019 was approximately $           million, or $           per share of Class A common stock. Pro forma net tangible book value represents the amount of total tangible assets less total liabilities, and pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock represents pro forma net tangible book value divided by the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding, after giving effect to the Reorganization Transactions and assuming that all of the holders of LLC Units in ZoomInfo OpCo (other than ZoomInfo HoldCo) and HoldCo Units in ZoomInfo HoldCo (other than ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.) exchanged their LLC Units and HoldCo Units, as applicable, for newly issued shares of Class A common stock on a one-to-one basis.
After giving effect to the transactions described under “Unaudited Pro Forma Combined and Consolidated Financial Information,” including the application of the proceeds from this offering as described in “Use of Proceeds,” our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2019 would have been $           million, or $          per share of Class A common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $          per share of Class A common stock to our pre-IPO owners and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $          per share of Class A common stock to investors in this offering.
The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share of Class A common stock basis assuming the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock:
Assumed initial public offering price per share of Class A common stock
 
 
$
Pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock as of December 31, 2019
$
 
 
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock attributable to investors in this offering
$
 
 
Pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock after the offering
 
 
$
Dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock to investors in this offering
 
 
$
Because the Pre-IPO LLC Unitholders and the Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders do not own any Class A common stock or other economic interests in ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., we have presented dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share of Class A common stock to investors in this offering assuming that all of the holders of LLC Units in ZoomInfo OpCo (other than ZoomInfo HoldCo) and HoldCo Units in ZoomInfo HoldCo (other than ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.) exchanged their LLC Units and HoldCo Units, as applicable, for newly issued shares of Class A common stock on a one-to-one basis in order to more meaningfully present the dilutive impact on the investors in this offering. The above table does not reflect the exchange of any Class P Units for shares of Class A common stock.
A $1.00 increase in the assumed initial public offering price of $                     per share of our Class A common stock would increase our pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to this offering by $           million, or by $          per share of our Class A common stock, assuming the number of shares offered by us remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discount. A $1.00 decrease in the assumed initial public offering price per share would result in equal changes in the opposite direction.
The following table summarizes, on the same pro forma basis as of December 31, 2019, the total number of shares of Class A common stock purchased from us, the total cash consideration paid to us, and the average price per share of Class A common stock paid by our pre-IPO owners and by new investors purchasing shares of Class A common stock in this offering, assuming that all of the holders of LLC Units in ZoomInfo OpCo (other than ZoomInfo HoldCo) and


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HoldCo Units in ZoomInfo HoldCo (other than ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.) exchanged their LLC Units or HoldCo Units for newly issued shares of our Class A common stock on a one-to-one basis. The following table does not reflect the exchange of any Class P Unit for share of Class A common stock.
 
Shares of Class A
common stock
Purchased
 
Total
Consideration 
 
Average Price Per Share of Class A common stock
 
Number
 
Percent
 
Amount
 
Percent