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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2023
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from               to               
Commission File Number 001-39310               
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
87-3037521
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
805 Broadway Street, Suite 900
Vancouver, Washington
98660
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(800) 914-1220
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareZIThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No

As of April 21, 2023, there were 402,328,690 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.





ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2023

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
               Consolidated Balance Sheets
               Consolidated Statements of Operations
               Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
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GLOSSARY
As used in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q (this “Form 10-Q”), the terms identified below have the meanings specified below unless otherwise noted or the context indicates otherwise. References in this Form 10-Q to “ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.” refer to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and not to any of its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise. References in this Form 10-Q to “ZoomInfo,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer (1) prior to the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions, to ZoomInfo OpCo and its consolidated subsidiaries, and (2) after the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions, to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.
2022 Form 10-K” refers to the Annual Report on Form 10-K of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 as filed with the SEC on February 16, 2023.
“AOCI” refers to Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Blocker Companies” refers to certain of our Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders that are taxable as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Class P Units” refers to Class P Units (including, without limitation, any indirectly held Class P Units) of ZoomInfo OpCo.
Common Stock Option” refers to an award granted under Section 7 of the 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan.
Customers” refers to companies that have contracted with us to use our services and, at the time of measurement, maintain one or more active paid subscriptions to our platform. Paid subscriptions will generally include access for a number of employees or other affiliated persons of the customer.
Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement” refers to the tax receivable agreement entered into with certain Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders.
HoldCo Units” refers to the class of units of ZoomInfo HoldCo.
HSKB” and “HSKB I” refers to HSKB Funds, LLC, a privately held limited liability company formed on February 9, 2016 for the purpose of issuing equity to certain persons who had performed and would continue to perform services for ZoomInfo OpCo.
HSKB II” refers to HSKB Funds II, LLC, a privately held limited liability company formed on May 28, 2020 for the purpose of effecting a reorganization of HSKB I at the time of the IPO and to issue equity to certain persons who had performed and would continue to perform services for ZoomInfo OpCo.
IPO” refers to the initial public offering of Class A common stock of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
LTIP Units” refers to a class of partnership units that are intended to qualify as “profit interests” in ZoomInfo OpCo for federal income tax purposes that, subject to certain conditions, including vesting, are convertible by the holder into OpCo Units.
OpCo Units” refers to the class of units of ZoomInfo OpCo and does not include Class P Units.
Pre-IPO Blocker Holders” refers to the Pre-IPO Owners that held their interests in us through the Blocker Companies immediately prior to the IPO.
Pre-IPO HoldCo Unitholders” refers to the Pre-IPO Owners that held HoldCo Units immediately prior to the IPO.
Pre-IPO OpCo Unitholders” refers to the Pre-IPO Owners that held OpCo Units immediately prior to the IPO.
Pre-IPO Owners” refers collectively to private equity investors, founders, management, and employees who were the owners of ZoomInfo OpCo immediately prior to the Reorganization Transactions.
Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement” refers to the tax receivable agreement entered into with the Pre-IPO Blocker Holders.
Reorganization Transactions” refers to the transactions described under “Reorganization Transactions” in Note 1 to our 2022 Form 10-K.
Restricted Stock” refers to our common stock, subject to certain specified restrictions (which may include, without limitation, a requirement that the recipient remain continuously employed or provide continuous services for a specified period of time), granted under Section 8 of the 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan.
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Restricted Stock Unit” or “RSU” refers to an unfunded and unsecured promise to deliver shares of our common stock, cash, other securities or other property, subject to certain restrictions (which may include, without limitation, a requirement that the recipient remain continuously employed or provide continuous services for a specified period of time), granted under Section 8 of the 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan.
SEC” refers to the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities Act” refers to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Tax Receivable Agreements” or “TRA” refers collectively to the Exchange Tax Receivable Agreement and the Reorganization Tax Receivable Agreement.
ZoomInfo HoldCo” refers to ZoomInfo Intermediate Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
ZoomInfo OpCo” refers to ZoomInfo Holdings LLC (formerly known as DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC), a Delaware limited liability company, and a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo HoldCo and indirect subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
From time to time we make statements concerning our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance and underlying assumptions and other statements that are not historical facts. These statements are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these statements. You can generally identify our forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “outlook,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “projection,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “trend,” “will,” “would” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words.
We have based our forward-looking statements on our management’s beliefs and assumptions based on information available to our management at the time the statements are made. We caution you that assumptions, beliefs, expectations, intentions and projections about future events may and often do vary materially from actual results. Therefore, we cannot assure you that actual results will not differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements.
The following are some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements, including forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q:
larger well-funded companies may shift their existing business models to become more competitive with us;
we experience competition from other companies and technologies that allow companies to gather and aggregate sales, marketing, recruiting, and other data, and competing products and services could surpass ours in depth, breadth, or accuracy of our data or in other respects;
our current and potential customers may reduce spending on sales, marketing, recruiting and other technology and information as a result of weaker economic conditions, which could harm our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows;
our platform integrates or otherwise work with third-party systems that we do not control;
we may be unable to attract new customers and expand existing subscriptions, which could harm our revenue growth and profitability;
changes in search engine algorithms and dynamics could negatively affect traffic to our website;
we may be unable to successfully integrate acquired businesses, services, databases, and technologies into our operations, which could have an adverse effect on our business;
new or changing laws and regulations may diminish the demand for our platform, restrict access to our platform, constrain the range of services we can provide, or require us to disclose or provide access to information in our possession, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition;
if we are not able to obtain and maintain accurate, comprehensive, or reliable data, we could experience reduced demand for our products and services and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition;
we may fail to protect and maintain our intellectual property;
third-parties could use our products and services in a manner that is unlawful or contrary to our values;
our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial position and our ability to raise additional capital and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations;
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interest rate fluctuations may affect our results of operations and financial condition;
global economic uncertainty and catastrophic events, including global pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have and may disrupt our business and adversely impact our business and future results of operations and financial condition;
the parties to our stockholders agreement have special rights and interests that may conflict with ours or yours in the future; and
other factors described under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of our 2022 Form 10-K, and in other reports we file from time to time with the SEC.
These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this Form 10-Q and our other filings with the SEC. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of our assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in our forward-looking statements. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of them. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, investments, or other strategic transactions we may make.
You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of the particular statement, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by law.
Website Disclosure
The Company intends to use its website as a distribution channel of material company information. Financial and other important information regarding the Company is routinely posted on and accessible through the Company’s website at https://ir.zoominfo.com. In addition, you may automatically receive email alerts and other information about the Company when you enroll your email address by visiting the “Email Alerts” section of our investor relations page at https://ir.zoominfo.com. The information on our website is not incorporated herein or otherwise a part of this Form 10-Q.
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PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and Subsidiaries

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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except share data)
March 31,December 31,
20232022
(unaudited)(audited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$474.0 $418.0 
Short-term investments141.8 127.7 
Accounts receivable, net215.5 222.9 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets65.9 57.8 
Income tax receivable7.9 5.6 
Total current assets905.1 832.0 
Restricted cash, non-current9.8 6.1 
Property and equipment, net53.4 52.1 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net60.6 63.0 
Intangible assets, net379.6 395.6 
Goodwill1,692.7 1,692.7 
Deferred tax assets3,952.9 3,977.9 
Deferred costs and other assets, net of current portion111.0 117.0 
Total assets$7,165.1 $7,136.4 
Liabilities and Permanent Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$25.9 $35.6 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities79.1 104.1 
Unearned revenue, current portion449.0 416.8 
Income taxes payable2.9 5.9 
Current portion of tax receivable agreements liability44.4  
Current portion of operating lease liabilities9.7 10.3 
Current portion of long-term debt6.0  
Total current liabilities617.0 572.7 
Unearned revenue, net of current portion2.4 3.1 
Tax receivable agreements liability, net of current portion2,924.2 2,978.7 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion65.9 67.9 
Long-term debt, net of current portion1,229.0 1,235.7 
Deferred tax liabilities1.6 1.0 
Other long-term liabilities5.7 5.5 
Total liabilities4,845.8 4,864.6 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 11)
Permanent Equity:
Common stock, par value $0.01; 3,300,000,000 shares authorized, 403,514,079 and 404,083,262 issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
4.0 4.0 
Preferred stock, par value $0.01; 200,000,000 shares authorized, 0 and 0 issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
  
Additional paid-in capital2,061.6 2,052.1 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)33.2 39.7 
Retained Earnings220.5 176.0 
Total equity2,319.3 2,271.8 
Total liabilities and permanent equity$7,165.1 $7,136.4 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in millions, except per share amounts; unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Revenue$300.7 $241.7 
Cost of service:
Cost of service(1)
35.0 32.8 
Amortization of acquired technology10.5 11.2 
Gross profit255.2 197.7 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing(1)
103.2 84.1 
Research and development(1)
42.3 45.6 
General and administrative(1)
37.7 27.8 
Amortization of other acquired intangibles
5.6 5.3 
Restructuring and transaction-related expenses
0.1 2.5 
Total operating expenses
188.9 165.3 
Income from operations
66.3 32.4 
Interest expense, net
9.9 11.8 
Loss on debt modification and extinguishment
2.2  
Other (income) expense, net
(14.0)1.4 
Income before income taxes
68.2 19.2 
Income tax expense
23.7 13.0 
Net income$44.5 $6.2 
Net income per share of common stock:
Basic
$0.11 $0.02 
Diluted
$0.11 $0.02 
________________
(1)Amounts include equity-based compensation expense, as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Cost of service
$4.1 $4.6 
Sales and marketing
19.5 16.1 
Research and development
6.9 15.6 
General and administrative
7.2 6.2 
Total equity-based compensation expense
$37.7 $42.5 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(in millions; unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Net income$44.5 $6.2 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Unrealized gain (loss) on cash flow hedges(3.4)21.4 
Realized (gain) loss on settlement of cash flow hedges(5.4)1.6 
Amortization of deferred losses related to the dedesignated Interest Rate Swap0.1  
Other comprehensive income (loss) before tax(8.7)23.0 
Tax effect2.2 (6.1)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(6.5)16.9 
Comprehensive income$38.0 $23.1 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity (Deficit)
(in millions, except share data)
New ZoomInfo Common Stock
SharesAmountAdditional paid-in capitalRetained EarningsAOCITotal Equity
Balance, December 31, 2022404,083,262$4.0 $2,052.1 $176.0 $39.7 $2,271.8 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of RSUs648,570 — — — — 
Shares withheld related to net share settlement and other(163,965)— (4.1)— — (4.1)
Exercise of stock options11,236 — 0.2 — — 0.2
Forfeitures / cancellations(6,733)— — — — 
Repurchase of common stock(1,058,291)— (24.3)— — (24.3)
Net income (loss)— — — 44.5 — 44.5
Other comprehensive income— — — — (6.5)(6.5)
Equity-based compensation— — 37.7 — — 37.7
Balance at March 31, 2023403,514,079$4.0 $2,061.6 $220.5 $33.2 $2,319.3 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity (Deficit)
(in millions, except share data)
New ZoomInfo Common Stock
SharesAmountAdditional paid-in capitalRetained EarningsAOCITotal Equity
Balance, December 31, 2021403,315,989$4.0 $1,871.6 $112.8 $9.5 $1,997.9 
Issuance of Class A common stock upon vesting of RSUs187,659 — — — — 
Shares withheld related to net share settlement and other(80,067)— (4.4)— — (4.4)
Exercise of stock options14,790 — 0.3 — — 0.3
Forfeitures / cancellations(43,210)— — — — 
Net income (loss)— — — 6.2 — 6.2
Other comprehensive income— — — — 16.9 16.9
Equity-based compensation— — 42.5 — — 42.5
Balance at March 31, 2022403,395,161$4.0 $1,910.0 $119.0 $26.4 $2,059.4 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in millions; unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$44.5 $6.2 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization20.9 20.0 
Amortization of debt discounts and issuance costs0.7 0.7 
Amortization of deferred commissions costs18.8 14.1 
Loss on debt modification and extinguishment2.2  
Equity-based compensation expense37.7 42.5 
Deferred income taxes27.9 10.7 
Tax receivable agreement remeasurement(10.1)0.9 
Provision for bad debt expense6.1 0.4 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:
Accounts receivable1.3 20.1 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(9.9)(4.8)
Deferred costs and other assets, net of current portion(16.4)(18.6)
Income tax receivable(2.3)(1.2)
Accounts payable(10.3)1.5 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(34.0)(29.4)
Unearned revenue31.5 41.9 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities108.6 105.0 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of short-term investments(63.6)(11.1)
Maturities of short-term investments50.4 17.0 
Purchases of property and equipment and other assets(6.4)(6.6)
Purchase of convertible note receivable (10.0)
Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired 2.1 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(19.6)(8.6)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Payments of deferred consideration (1.1)
Repayment of debt(1.5) 
Payments of debt issuance and modification costs(2.0)(0.4)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options0.2 0.3 
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(4.1)(3.8)
Payments of equity issuance costs (0.3)
Tax receivable agreement payments (5.0)
Repurchase of common stock(21.9) 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(29.3)(10.3)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash59.7 86.1 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period424.1 314.1 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$483.8 $400.2 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period:
Cash and cash equivalents$474.0 $394.4 
Restricted cash, non-current9.8 5.8 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$483.8 $400.2 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in millions; unaudited) (continued)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20232022
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Interest paid in cash$18.7 $19.5 
Cash paid for taxes$1.7 $1.3 
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Deferred variable consideration from acquisition of a business$ $1.1 
Property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities$0.8 $1.3 


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ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
(In millions, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts, unless otherwise noted)


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Note 1 - Organization and Background
Business
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., through its operating subsidiaries provides a go-to-market intelligence and engagement platform for sales and marketing teams. The Company’s cloud-based platform provides workflow tools with integrated, accurate, and comprehensive information on organizations and professionals to help users identify target customers and decision makers, obtain continually updated predictive lead and company scoring, monitor buying signals and other attributes of target companies, craft messages, engage via automated sales tools, and track progress through the deal cycle. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “ZoomInfo,” and the “Company” refer (1) prior to the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions, to ZoomInfo OpCo and its consolidated subsidiaries, (2) after the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions and prior to the consummation of the Holding Company Reorganization, to ZoomInfo Intermediate Inc. (formerly known as ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.) and its consolidated subsidiaries and (3) after the consummation of the Holding Company Reorganization, to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (formerly known as ZoomInfo NewCo Inc.) and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Organization
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. was formed on November 14, 2019 with no operating assets or operations as a Delaware corporation for the purposes of facilitating an initial public offering (“IPO”) and other related transactions in order to carry on the business of ZoomInfo Holdings LLC (“ZoomInfo OpCo”) (formerly known as DiscoverOrg Holdings, LLC), a Delaware limited liability company. Following consummation of the Reorganization Transactions, ZoomInfo OpCo became a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo Intermediate Holdings LLC (“ZoomInfo HoldCo”), a Delaware limited liability company and an indirect subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. Following the consummation of the Holding Company Reorganization, ZoomInfo OpCo became a direct subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and ZoomInfo Intermediate Inc.
The Company headquarters are located in Vancouver, WA, and we have additional offices throughout the United States, and in Israel, Canada, the United Kingdom, and India.
Corporate Structure Simplification Transactions
In August 2021, the Company completed a series of reorganization transactions to simplify its corporate structure, including the distribution of shares of common stock of RKSI Acquisition Corp (“RKSI”) from ZoomInfo Holdings LLC to ZoomInfo HoldCo, the merger of RKSI with and into ZoomInfo HoldCo with ZoomInfo HoldCo surviving, and the merger of ZoomInfo HoldCo with and into the Company with the Company surviving. Prior to the consummation of the HoldCo Merger, all holders of HoldCo Units (other than the Company) exchanged their HoldCo Units and paired shares of Class B common stock of the Company for shares of Class A common stock of the Company pursuant to the terms of the limited liability company agreement of HoldCo.


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Note 1 - Organization and Background (continued)
Holding Company Reorganization
In September 2021, the Board of Directors unanimously approved streamlining the Company’s corporate structure and governance by eliminating the Company’s umbrella partnership-C-corporation (“UP-C”) and multi-class voting structure. In October 2021, the Company implemented this reorganization, pursuant to which (i) a subsidiary of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (formerly known as ZoomInfo NewCo Inc.) (“New ZoomInfo”) merged with and into ZoomInfo Intermediate Inc. (“Old ZoomInfo”), formerly known as ZoomInfo Technologies Inc., which resulted in New ZoomInfo becoming the direct parent company of Old ZoomInfo, and (ii) immediately thereafter, another subsidiary of New ZoomInfo merged with and into ZoomInfo Holdings LLC (“ZoomInfo OpCo”), which resulted in ZoomInfo OpCo becoming a subsidiary of New ZoomInfo (the combined transaction described in (i) and (ii), the “Holding Company Reorganization”). As a result of the Holding Company Reorganization, New ZoomInfo became the successor issuer and reporting company to Old ZoomInfo pursuant to Rule 12g-3(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and replaced the Predecessor Registrant as the public company trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) under the ticker symbol “ZI.”.
After the consummation of the Holding Company Reorganization, the only class of common stock of the New ZoomInfo remaining issued and outstanding was the Class A common stock and all shares of Class B common stock were cancelled, and all shares of Class C common stock were converted to Class A common stock. In May 2022, following approval by the Company’s stockholders, the Company further amended and restated its Amended and Restated Certification of Incorporation to eliminate the multiple classes of common stock and to rename the Company’s Class A common stock as “Common Stock.” All references within this document to Class A common stock for periods subsequent to May 23, 2022, and, where the context requires, references within this document to Class A common stock for periods prior to May 23, 2022, have been updated for the renaming.
Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pertaining to interim financial information. Certain information in footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) has been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations. The financial statements included in this report should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2022.
The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results that may be expected for the full fiscal year ending December 31, 2023 or any future period.
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of financial position as of March 31, 2023, and results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022. Accordingly, certain footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted.
Effective May 23, 2022, the Company’s Class A common stock was renamed as “Common Stock.” All references within this document to Class A common stock for periods subsequent to May 23, 2022, and, where the context requires, references within this document to Class A common stock for periods prior to May 23, 2022, have been updated for the renaming.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make certain estimates, judgments, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We base these estimates on historical and anticipated results, trends, and other assumptions with respect to future events that we believe are reasonable and evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. Given that estimates and judgments are required, actual results may differ from our estimates and such differences could be material to our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Revenue Recognition
The Company derives revenue primarily from subscription services. Our subscription services consist of our SaaS applications and related access to our platform. Subscription contracts are generally based on the number of users that access our applications, the level of functionality that they can access, and the amount of data that a customer integrates with their systems. Our subscription contracts typically have a term of one to three years and are non-cancelable. We typically bill for services annually, semi-annually, or quarterly in advance of delivery.
The Company accounts for revenue contracts with customers through the following steps:
(1)identify the contract with a customer;
(2)identify the performance obligations in the contract;
(3)determine the transaction price;
(4)allocate the transaction price; and
(5)recognize revenue when or as the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
We recognize revenue for subscription contracts on a ratable basis over the contract term based on the number of calendar days in each period, beginning on the date that our service is made available to the customer. Unearned revenue results from revenue amounts billed to customers in advance or cash received from customers in advance of the satisfaction of performance obligations. Determining the transaction price often involves judgment and making estimates that can have a significant impact on the timing and amount of revenue reported. At times, the Company may adjust billing under a contract based on the addition of services or other circumstances, which are accounted for as variable consideration. The Company estimates these amounts based on historical experience and adjusts revenue recognized.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Short-term Investments
Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid marketable debt securities with remaining maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase. We classify our investments in marketable securities as “available-for-sale.” We carry these investments at fair value, based on quoted market prices or other readily available market information. Unrealized gains and losses, net of taxes, are included in accumulated other comprehensive income, which is reflected as a separate component of stockholders’ equity on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Gains and losses are determined using the specific identification method and recognized when realized on our Consolidated Statements of Operations. If we were to determine that an other-than-temporary decline in fair value has occurred, the amount of the decline related to a credit loss will be recognized in income.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company measures assets and liabilities at fair value based on an expected exit price, which represents the amount that would be received on the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value may be based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. The authoritative guidance on fair value measurements establishes a consistent framework for measuring fair value on either a recurring or nonrecurring basis whereby inputs, used in valuation techniques, are assigned a hierarchical level. The following are the hierarchical levels of inputs to measure fair value:
Level 1 - Observable inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 - Other inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity, including the Company’s own assumptions in determining fair value
The inputs or methodology used for valuing financial assets and liabilities are not necessarily an indication of the risk associated with investing in them.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Significant Customers
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, and accounts receivable. The Company holds cash at major financial institutions that often exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insured limits. The Company manages its credit risk associated with cash concentrations by concentrating its cash deposits in high-quality financial institutions and by periodically evaluating the credit quality of the primary financial institutions holding such deposits. The carrying value of cash approximates fair value. Our investment portfolio is comprised of highly rated securities with a weighted-average maturity of less than 12 months in accordance with our investment policy which seeks to preserve principal and maintain a high degree of liquidity. Historically, the Company has not experienced any losses due to such cash concentrations. The Company does not have any off-balance-sheet credit exposure related to its customers. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable and revenue are limited due to a large, diverse customer base. We do not require collateral from clients. We maintain an allowance for credit losses based upon the expected collectability of accounts receivable. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and maintains allowances for possible losses, which, when realized, have been within the range of management’s expectations. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, or accounted for more than 10% of accounts receivable as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022. Long-lived assets located outside of the United States were immaterial as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
Accounts Receivable and Contract Assets
Accounts receivable is comprised of invoices of revenue, net of allowance for credit losses, and does not bear interest. We consider receivables past due based on the contractual payment terms. Management’s evaluation of the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses considers historical collection experience, changes in customer payment profiles, the aging of receivable balances, as well as current economic conditions, all of which may impact a customer’s ability to pay. Account balances are written-off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. The Company does not have significant bad debt experience with customers, and therefore, the allowance for credit losses is immaterial as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
The assessment of variable consideration to be constrained is based on estimates, and actual consideration may vary from current estimates. As adjustments to these estimates become necessary, they are reported in earnings in the periods in which they become known. Changes in variable consideration are recorded as a component of net revenue.
Contract assets represent a contractual right to consideration in the future. Contract assets are generated when contractual billing schedules differ from revenue recognition timing.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization. All repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation and amortization costs are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the asset or the remainder of the lease term for leasehold improvements. Qualifying internal use software costs incurred during the application development stage, which consist primarily of internal product development costs, outside services, and purchased software license costs, are capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life of the asset. Estimated useful lives range from three years to ten years.
Deferred Commissions
Certain sales commissions earned by our sales force are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. These sales commissions for initial contracts are capitalized and included in Deferred costs and other assets, net of current portion on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Deferred sales commissions are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated period of benefit from the customer relationship which we have determined to be one and three years for renewals and new clients, respectively. We determined the period of benefit by taking into consideration our customer contracts, our technology, and other factors. Amortization expense is included in Sales and marketing expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Commissions payable at March 31, 2023 were $31.1 million, of which the current portion of $27.3 million was included in Accrued expenses and other current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, and the long-term portion of $3.8 million was included in Other long-term liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Commissions payable at December 31, 2022 were $36.2 million, of which the current portion of $32.1 million was included in Accrued expenses and other current liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, and the long-term portion of $4.1 million was included in Other long-term liabilities on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Certain commissions are not capitalized as they do not represent incremental costs of obtaining a contract. Such commissions are expensed as incurred.
Advertising and Promotional Expenses
The Company expenses advertising costs as incurred. Advertising expenses of $8.5 million and $7.5 million were recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 respectively. Advertising expenses are included in Sales and marketing on our Consolidated Statements of Operations.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist primarily of compensation expense for our employees, including employee benefits, certain IT program expenses, facilities and related overhead costs. We continue to focus our research and development efforts on developing new products, adding new features and services, integrating acquired technologies, and increasing functionality. Expenditures for software developed or obtained for internal use are capitalized and amortized over a four-year period on a straight-line basis.
Restructuring and Transaction-Related Expenses
The Company defines restructuring and transaction-related expenses as costs directly associated with restructuring, acquisition, or disposal activities. Such costs include employee severance and termination benefits, contract termination fees and penalties, and other exit or disposal costs. In general, the Company records involuntary employee-related exit and disposal costs when there is a substantive plan for employee severance and related costs that are probable and estimable. For one-time termination benefits for key members of management (i.e., no substantive plan) expense is recorded when the employees are entitled to receive such benefits and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Transaction related bonuses and related employee retention costs are recognized over the relevant service period. Contract termination fees and penalties and other exit and disposal costs are generally recorded when incurred.
Business Combinations
We allocate purchase consideration to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The purchase price is determined based on the fair value of the assets transferred, liabilities assumed and equity interests issued, after considering any transactions that are separate from the business combination. The fair value of equity issued as part of a business combination is determined based on grant date stock price of the Company. The excess of fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of the identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets and contingent liabilities. Significant estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows from acquired customer bases, acquired technology and acquired trade names, useful lives, royalty rates, and discount rates.
The estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to revision as additional information is obtained during the measurement period for an acquisition, which may last up to one year from the acquisition date. During the measurement period, we may record adjustments to the fair value of tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with a corresponding offset to goodwill. After the conclusion of the measurement period or the final determination of the fair value of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to earnings.
In addition, uncertain tax positions and tax-related valuation allowances assumed in connection with a business combination are initially estimated as of the acquisition date. We reevaluate these items based upon the facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date, with any revisions to our preliminary estimates being recorded to goodwill, provided that the timing is within the measurement period. Subsequent to the measurement period, changes to uncertain tax positions and tax-related valuation allowances will be recorded to earnings.
Goodwill and Acquired Intangible Assets
Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the purchase consideration paid in a business combination over the fair value of the assets acquired less liabilities assumed. Goodwill is not amortized and is tested for impairment at least annually during the fourth quarter of our fiscal year or when events and circumstances indicate that fair value of a reporting unit may be below its carrying value. The company has one reporting unit.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
We first assess qualitative factors to evaluate whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying amount or elect to bypass such assessment. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, or we elect to bypass the qualitative assessment, we perform a quantitative test by determining the fair value of the reporting unit. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value, then an impairment loss is recognized for the difference.
Acquired technology, customer lists, trade names or brand portfolios, and other intangible assets are related to previous acquisitions (refer to Note 7 - Goodwill and Acquired Intangible Assets). Acquired intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated period over which we expect to realize economic value related to the intangible asset. The amortization periods range from 2 years to 15 years. Any costs incurred to renew or extend the life of an intangible or long-lived asset are reviewed for capitalization.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist primarily of brand portfolios acquired from Pre-Acquisition ZI and represent costs paid to legally register phrases and graphic designs that identify and distinguish products sold by the Company. Brand portfolios are not amortized, rather potential impairment is considered on an annual basis in the fourth quarter, or more frequently upon the occurrence of a triggering event, when circumstances indicate that the book value of trademarks are greater than their fair value. The Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than the carrying value as a basis to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. No impairment charges relating to acquired goodwill or indefinite lived intangible assets were recorded for the three month periods ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
Long-lived assets, such as property and equipment and acquired intangible assets, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to the undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or group of assets. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the estimated future cash flows of the asset. No impairment charges were recorded for the three month periods ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
Leases
We determine if an arrangement is or contains a lease at contract inception. For these arrangements, primarily those related to our data center arrangements, there is judgment in evaluating if the arrangement involves an identified asset that is physically distinct or whether we have the right to substantially all of the capacity of an identified asset that is not physically distinct. In arrangements that involve an identified asset, there is also judgment in evaluating if we have the right to direct the use of that asset.
We do not have any finance leases. Operating leases are recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are measured at the lease commencement date based on the present value of the fixed minimum remaining lease payments over the lease term, determined using the discount rate for the lease at the commencement date. Because the rates implicit in our leases are not readily determinable, we use our incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate for each respective lease, which approximates the interest rate at which we could borrow on a collateralized basis with similar terms and payments and in similar economic environments. Some leases include options to extend or options to terminate the lease prior to the stated lease expiration. Optional periods to extend a lease, including by not exercising a termination option, are included in the lease term when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised (or not exercised in the case of termination options). Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. We account for lease and non-lease components, principally common area maintenance and related taxes for our facilities leases, as a single lease component. Short term leases, defined as leases having an original lease term less than or equal to one year, are excluded from our right-of-use assets and liabilities.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
Unearned Revenue
Unearned revenue consists of customer payments and billings in advance of revenue being recognized from our subscription services. Unearned revenue that is anticipated to be recognized within the next 12 months is recorded as Unearned revenue, current portion and the remaining portion is included in Unearned revenue, net of current portion on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Debt Issuance Costs
Costs incurred in connection with the issuance of long-term debt are deferred and amortized as interest expense over the terms of the related debt using the effective interest method for term debt and on a straight-line basis for revolving debt. Debt issuance costs are generally presented on our Consolidated Balance Sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the outstanding borrowings, consistent with debt discounts. However, the Company classifies the debt issuance costs related to its first lien revolving credit facility within Deferred costs and other assets, net of current portion on our Consolidated Balance Sheets regardless of whether the Company has any outstanding borrowings on our first lien revolving credit facility. Upon a refinancing or amendment, the Company evaluates the modified debt instrument in accordance with ASC 470-50-40-10. When the present value of the cash flows under the modified debt instrument has changed by greater than 10 percent from the present value of the remaining cash flows under the terms of the original debt instrument, the Company accounts for the amendment as a debt extinguishment and all previously-capitalized debt issuance costs are expensed and included in Loss on debt modification and extinguishment. If the change in the present value of cash flows is less than 10 percent, any previously-capitalized debt issuance costs are amortized as interest expense over the term of the new debt instrument. The Company performs assessments of debt modifications at a lender-specific level for all syndicated financing arrangements.
Tax Receivable Agreements
In connection with our IPO, we entered into two Tax Receivable Agreements ("TRAs") with certain non-controlling interest owners (the “TRA Holders”). The TRAs generally provide for payment by the Company to the TRA Holders of 85% of the net cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that the Company actually realizes or is deemed to realize in certain circumstances. The Company will retain the benefit of the remaining 15% of these net cash savings.
Amounts payable under the TRA are accrued by a charge to income when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount is estimable. TRA related liabilities are classified as current or noncurrent based on the expected date of payment and are included on our Consolidated Balance Sheets under the captions Current portion of tax receivable agreements liability and Tax receivable agreements liability, net of current portion, respectively. Subsequent changes to the measurement of the TRA liability are recognized on our Consolidated Statements of Operations as a component of Other (income) expense, net. Refer to Note 15 - Tax Receivable Agreements for further details on the TRA liability.
Income Taxes
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities based on temporary differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax law is recognized in the condensed consolidated statement of operations in the period that includes the enactment date.
The need for valuation allowances is regularly evaluated for deferred tax assets for which future realization is uncertain. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we consider both positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax assets and liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and results of recent operations. If, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is recorded.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
The Company recognizes the tax benefit of an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the position is sustainable upon examination by the taxing authority, solely based on its technical merits. The tax benefit recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit which is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement with the taxing authority. The Company recognizes interest accrued and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within the provision for (benefit from) income taxes.
Equity-Based Compensation Expense
The Company periodically grants incentive awards to employees and non-employees, which generally vest over periods up to four years. Incentive awards may be in the form of various equity-based awards such as Restricted Stock and Restricted Stock Units, and Common Stock Options. Historically, the Company also granted awards in one of the Company’s legacy subsidiary partnerships and such awards were typically in the form of profits interests. Profits interests are an interest in the increase in the value of the entity over a participation threshold. Prior to the IPO, the participation threshold was based on the valuation determined by the Board of Managers of OpCo Units on or around the grant date. Subsequent to the IPO, the participation threshold was determined by reference to the closing price of our Class A common stock from the preceding trading day. The holders of profits interests had the right to participate in distributions of profits only in excess of the participation threshold. Previously awarded profits interests were converted into Restricted Stock awards in connection with the Holding Company Reorganization (refer to Note 1 - Organization and Background).
Compensation expense for incentive awards is measured at the estimated fair value of the incentive units and is included as compensation expense over the vesting period during which an employee provides service in exchange for the award. Compensation expense for performance-based Restricted Stock Units is measured at the estimated fair value of the units and is recognized using the accelerated attribution method over the service period when it is probable that the performance condition will be satisfied.
The Company uses a Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of stock options and profits interests, as profits interests have certain economic similarities to options. The Black-Scholes option pricing model includes various assumptions, including the expected term of incentive units, the expected volatility and the expected risk-free interest rate. These assumptions reflect the Company’s best estimates, but they involve inherent uncertainties based on market conditions generally outside the control of the Company. As a result, if other assumptions are used, compensation cost could be materially impacted.
Compensation expense related to the Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan is measured at the estimated fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model using the estimated number of awards as of the beginning of the offering period.
The Company measures employee, non-employee, and board of director equity-based compensation on the grant date fair value basis. Equity-based compensation expense is recognized over the requisite service period of the awards. For equity awards that have a performance condition, the Company recognizes compensation expense based on its assessment of the probability that the performance condition will be achieved. The Company has elected to account for forfeitures as they occur.
The Company classifies equity-based compensation expense on our Consolidated Statements of Operations in the same manner in which the award recipient’s salary and related costs are classified or in which the award recipient’s service payments are classified.


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Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (continued)
Share Repurchase Program
In March 2023, the Board of Directors authorized a program to repurchase up to $100.0 million of the Company’s Common Stock (the “Share Repurchase Program”). Under the Share Repurchase Program, shares of Common Stock may be repurchased from time to time through open market transactions in compliance with applicable securities laws. The timing, manner, price and amount of any repurchases, as well as the capital resources to fund the repurchases, are determined by the Company at its discretion and depend on a variety of factors, including legal requirements, price and economic and market conditions.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company repurchased and subsequently retired 1,058,291 shares of Common Stock at an average price of $22.99, for an aggregate $24.3 million. As of March 31, 2023, $75.7 million remained available and authorized for repurchases under the Share Repurchase Program.
Note 3 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Revenue comprised the following service offerings:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20232022
Subscription$297.4 $239.7 
Usage-based2.4 2.0 
Other0.9  
Total revenue$300.7 $241.7 
Go-To-Market business intelligence tools are subscription services that allow customers access to our SaaS tools to support sales and marketing processes, which include data, analytics, and insights to provide accurate and comprehensive intelligence on organizations and professionals. Our customers use our platform to identify target customers and decision makers, obtain continually updated predictive lead and company scoring, monitor buying signals and other attributes of target companies, craft messages, engage via automated sales tools, and track progress through the deal cycle.
Usage-based revenue is comprised largely of email verification and facilitation of online advertisements, which are charged to our customers on a per unit basis based on their usage. We regularly observe that customers integrate our usage-based services into their internal workflows and use our services on an ongoing basis. We recognize usage-based revenue at the point in time the services are consumed by the customer, thereby satisfying our performance obligation.
Other revenue is comprised largely of implementation and professional services fees. We recognize other revenue as services are delivered.
Of the total revenue recognized in the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, $213.3 million and $172.6 million were included in the unearned revenue balance as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Revenue recognized from performance obligations satisfied (or partially satisfied) in previous periods was not material.
Revenues derived from customers and partners located outside the United States, as determined based on the address provided by our customers and partners, accounted for approximately 13% and 12% of our total revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Contracts denominated in currencies other than U.S. Dollar were not material for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.
Contract Assets and Unearned Revenue
The Company’s standard billing terms typically require payment at the beginning of each annual, semi-annual, or quarterly period. Subscription revenue is generally recognized ratably over the contract term starting with when our service is made available to the customer. Usage-based revenue is recognized in the period services are utilized


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Note 3 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers (continued)
by our customers. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services.
The Company records a contract asset when revenue recognized on a contract exceeds the billings to date for that contract. Unearned revenue results from cash received or amounts billed to customers in advance of revenue recognized upon the satisfaction of performance obligations. The unearned revenue balance is influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the compounding effects of renewals, invoice duration, invoice timing, dollar size, and new business timing within the quarter. The unearned revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual or multi-year, non-cancelable subscription agreements.
As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had contract assets of $5.6 million and $5.7 million, respectively, which are recorded as current assets within Prepaid expenses and other current assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had unearned revenue of $451.4 million and $419.9 million, respectively.
ASC 606 requires the allocation of the transaction price to the remaining performance obligations of a contract. Transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations represents contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized, which includes unearned revenue and unbilled amounts that will be recognized as revenue in future periods. Transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations is influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the timing of renewals, and disparate contract terms. Revenue allocated to remaining performance obligations represents contracted revenue that has not yet been recognized, which includes unearned revenue and backlog. The Company's backlog represents installment billings for periods beyond the current billing cycle. The majority of the Company’s noncurrent remaining performance obligations will be recognized in the next 13 to 36 months.
The remaining performance obligations consisted of the following:
(in millions)
Recognized within one year
NoncurrentTotal
As of March 31, 2023$839.2 $253.3 $1,092.5 
Note 4 - Business Combinations
2022 Acquisitions
In April 2022, the Company acquired all the outstanding equity interests of Comparably, Inc. (“Comparably”) and acquired substantially all the assets and certain specified liabilities of Dogpatch Advisors, LLC (“Dogpatch”) (collectively, the “2022 Acquired Companies”) for a total purchase consideration of $150.6 million in cash and $10.0 million in convertible notes receivable. As part of the acquisitions, the Company issued 448,740 restricted stock units at a total grant date fair value of $26.8 million and could be required to issue additional equity awards up to a maximum value of $3.7 million based on the attainment of certain revenue thresholds and the continued employment of acquired employees. The acquisition of Comparably provides ZoomInfo with unique proprietary data to further build TalentOS into a best-in-class talent platform by enriching recruiter search options and providing recruiters with access to millions of quality candidates and employer brand solutions. We acquired Dogpatch Advisors to launch ZoomInfo Labs, a new go-to-market thought leadership team, driving go-to-market data analysis, product enhancements and strategy for our enterprise customers. Dogpatch is a go-to-market consultancy with expertise in scaling revenue teams and building modern sales and marketing systems. The purchase accounting for the 2022 Acquired Companies transactions has been finalized.
The Company has included the financial results of the 2022 Acquired Companies in the consolidated financial statements from each date of acquisition. Due to the integration of the 2022 Acquired Companies into the operations of ZoomInfo, the Company cannot practicably determine the contribution of the 2022 Acquired Companies to consolidated net earnings. Transaction costs associated with each acquisition were not material.


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Note 4 - Business Combinations (continued)
The acquisition date fair value of the total consideration transferred was comprised of the following (in millions):
Preliminary Fair Value at Acquisition DateMeasurement Period AdjustmentsAdjusted Fair Value at Acquisition Date
Cash$150.5 $0.1 $150.6 
Conversion of Note Receivable10.0 — 10.0 
Total purchase consideration$160.5 $0.1 $160.6 
The following table summarizes the aggregate fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, as of the dates of the acquisition for the 2022 Acquired Companies (in millions):
Preliminary Fair Value at Acquisition DateMeasurement Period AdjustmentsAdjusted Fair Value at Acquisition Date
Cash and cash equivalents$14.8 $— $14.8 
Accounts receivable2.3 — 2.3 
Prepaid expenses and other assets0.3 0.7 1.0 
Intangible assets34.8 — 34.8 
Accounts payable and other liabilities(0.9)(0.4)(1.3)
Unearned revenue(6.8)— (6.8)
Deferred tax liabilities(6.5)2.9 (3.6)
Total identifiable net assets acquired38.0 3.2 41.2 
Goodwill122.5 (3.1)119.4 
Total consideration160.5 0.1 160.6 
Cash acquired(14.8)— (14.8)
Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired$145.7 $0.1 $145.8 
Cash paid (refunds received) for 2021 acquisitions in 2022 (see "2021 Acquisitions")(2.1)
Total cash paid for acquisitions in 2022$143.7 
The excess of purchase consideration over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired was recorded as goodwill. The fair values assigned to tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed are based on management’s estimates and assumptions. The fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the Comparably acquisition may be subject to change as additional information is received regarding working capital balances at the acquisition date, and the values of the identifiable intangible assets.


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Note 4 - Business Combinations (continued)
The following table sets forth the components of identifiable intangible assets acquired and the estimated useful lives as of the dates of acquisition (in millions):
Preliminary Fair Value at Acquisition DateMeasurement Period AdjustmentsAdjusted Fair Value at Acquisition DateWeighted Average Useful Life
Existing Technology$27.6 $— $27.6 5.8 years
Customer Relationships3.4  3.4 9.0 years
Trade name / Trademarks3.8 — 3.8 8.0 years
Total intangible assets$34.8 $ $34.8 
Developed technology represents the fair value of the technology portfolios acquired. The goodwill is primarily attributed to the expanded market opportunities when integrating technology with the Company’s technology and the assembled workforce. All goodwill acquired in the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 is expected to be deductible for U.S. income tax purposes.
Pro forma information related to the acquisitions has not been presented as the impact was not material to the Company’s financial results.
Note 5 - Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Short-term Investments
Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments consisted of the following as of March 31, 2023:
(in millions)Amortized CostUnrealized GainsUnrealized LossesEstimated Fair Value
Current Assets:
Cash$137.2 $— $— $137.2 
Cash equivalents
Corporate debt securities167.3 —  167.3 
Money market mutual funds169.5 —  169.5 
Total cash equivalents336.8 —  336.8 
Total cash and cash equivalents474.0 —  474.0 
Short-term investments:
Corporate debt securities101.9  (0.1)101.8 
Securities guaranteed by U.S. government27.7   27.7 
Other governmental securities12.3   12.3 
Total short-term investments141.9  (0.1)141.8 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments$615.9 $ $(0.1)$615.8 


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Note 5 - Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Short-term Investments (continued)
Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments consisted of the following as of December 31, 2022:
(in millions)Amortized CostUnrealized GainsUnrealized LossesEstimated Fair Value
Current Assets:
Cash$235.6 $— $— $235.6 
Cash equivalents
Corporate debt securities159.9 — (0.1)159.8 
Money market mutual funds18.6 —  18.6 
Securities guaranteed by U.S. government4.0 —  4.0 
Total cash equivalents182.5 — (0.1)182.4 
Total cash and cash equivalents418.1 — (