Washington, D.C. 20549


Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): November 1, 2022
ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation)
(Commission File Number)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)

805 Broadway Street, Suite 900, Vancouver, Washington 98660
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800) 914-1220
Not applicable
(Former name or former address, if changed since last report.)
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8−K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a−12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a−12)
Pre−commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d−2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d−2(b))
Pre−commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e−4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e− 4(c))
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company     
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Item 2.02    Results of Operations and Financial Condition.
On November 1, 2022, ZoomInfo Technologies Inc. (the “Company”) issued a press release announcing its financial results as of and for the period ended September 30, 2022. A copy of the press release is furnished as Exhibit 99.1 to this current report and is incorporated herein by reference. The information contained in Item 2.02 of this current report, including the press release furnished as Exhibit 99.1 hereto, is being furnished and shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and shall not be incorporated by reference into any registration statement or other document filed under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.

Item 9.01    Financial Statements and Exhibits.
The following Exhibit 99.1 is furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 of this report.
(d)     Exhibits.
Exhibit No.Description
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Date: November 1, 2022
By:     /s/ P. Cameron Hyzer    
Name:  P. Cameron Hyzer
Title:    Chief Financial Officer

Exhibit 99.1
ZoomInfo Announces Third Quarter 2022 Financial Results

GAAP Revenue of $287.6 million Grows 46% year-over-year
GAAP Operating Margin of 18% and Adjusted Operating Income Margin of 41%
Cash Flow from Operations of $85.7 million and Unlevered Free Cash Flow of $99.8 million

Vancouver, WA, November 1, 2022 - ZoomInfo, (NASDAQ: ZI) a global leader in modern go-to-market software, data, and intelligence, today announced its financial results for the third quarter ended September 30, 2022.

“As a best-in-class high-growth software company with strong profitability, our customers are looking to us for best practices on how to grow efficiently - we do that by leveraging ZoomInfo's data, insights, and automation,” said Henry Schuck, ZoomInfo Founder and CEO. “We drive a quick and measurable ROI for customers and our innovative platform scales with them. As a result, we delivered another quarter of record revenue and profitability, as we are quickly becoming the go-to-market platform of choice for B2B companies looking to drive efficient growth.”

Third Quarter 2022 Financial and Other Recent Highlights -

Financial Highlights:
Revenue of $287.6 million, an increase of 46% year-over-year.
Operating income of $51.8 million and Adjusted Operating Income of $118.4 million.
GAAP operating income margin of 18% and Adjusted Operating Income Margin of 41%.
Cash flow from operations of $85.7 million and Unlevered Free Cash Flow of $99.8 million.

Business and Operating Highlights:
Renewed the TRUSTe Enterprise Privacy Seal for the third consecutive year and joined the global software security sharing nonprofit SAFECode. The TRUSTe certification criteria is based upon globally recognized laws and regulatory standards, including the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 27001 standard. As an associate member of SAFECode, ZoomInfo manages its software security in alignment with the security industry’s highest standards and shares best practices with SAFECode’s global members.
Continued investment in machine learning, data acquisition, and enhanced location-based data matching technologies increased ZoomInfo data coverage:
ZoomInfo’s global contact database has grown by 60 million in 2022 to more than 235 million business-to-business (B2B) professional profiles, including more than 145 million contacts in markets outside of the U.S.
ZoomInfo has detailed, accurate data on more than 100 million companies worldwide with 100% coverage of revenue, headcount, and industry classifications (NAICS and SIC), and technology usage insights for more than 30 million companies.
Joined the AWS Partner Network in order to expand data delivery through OperationsOS, ZoomInfo’s Data-as-a-Service (DaaS) offering. ZoomInfo’s engagement-ready data is now natively available within the Amazon cloud ecosystem delivering best-in-class B2B data and insights across the enterprise.
Closed the quarter with 1,848 customers with $100,000 or greater in annual contract value.


Q3 2022 Financial Highlights (Unaudited)
($ in millions, except per share amounts)
GAAP Quarterly ResultsChange YoYNon-GAAP Quarterly ResultsChange YoY
Operating Income$51.8156%Adjusted Operating Income$118.451%
Operating Income Margin18%Adjusted Operating Income Margin41%
Net Income Per Share (Diluted)$0.04Adjusted Net Income per share (Diluted)$0.24
Cash Flow from Operating Activities$85.784%Unlevered Free Cash Flow$99.836%

The Company uses a variety of operational and financial metrics, including non-GAAP financial measures, to evaluate its performance and financial condition. The accompanying financial data includes additional information regarding these metrics and a reconciliation of non-GAAP financial information for historical periods to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure. The presentation of non-GAAP financial information should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for, or superior to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with GAAP.

Business Outlook:

Based on information available as of November 1, 2022, ZoomInfo is providing guidance for the fourth quarter and full year 2022 as follows:
Q4 2022Prior FY 2022FY 2022
GAAP Revenue$298 - $300 million$1.08 - $1.09 billion$1.094 - $1.096 billion
Non-GAAP Adjusted Operating Income$121 - $123 million$433 - $437 million$442 - $444 million
Non-GAAP Adjusted Net Income per share$0.21 - $0.22$0.78 - $0.80$0.83 - $0.84
Non-GAAP Unlevered Free Cash FlowNot Guided$438 - $446 million$430 - $435 million
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding414 million411 million 411 million


Conference Call and Webcast Information:

ZoomInfo will host a conference call today, November 1, 2022, to review its results at 4:30 p.m. Eastern Time, 1:30 p.m. Pacific Time. To participate in the live conference call via telephone, please register here. Upon registering, a dial-in number and unique PIN will be provided to join the conference call.

The call will also be webcast live on the Company’s investor relations website at https://ir.zoominfo.com/, where related presentation materials will be posted prior to the conference call. Following the conference call, an archived webcast of the call will be available for one year on ZoomInfo’s Investor Relations website.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Other Metrics:

To supplement our consolidated financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP, this press release contains non-GAAP financial measures, including Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted Operating Income Margin, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Net Income Per Share, and Unlevered Free Cash Flow. We believe these non-GAAP measures are useful to investors in evaluating our operating performance because they eliminate certain items that affect period-over-period comparability and provide consistency with past financial performance and additional information about our underlying results and trends by excluding certain items that may not be indicative of our business, results of operations, or outlook.
Non-GAAP financial measures are not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the comparable GAAP measures, but rather as supplemental information to our business results. This information should be read only in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP. There are limitations to these non-GAAP financial measures because they are not prepared in accordance with GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies due to potential differences in methods of calculation and items or events being adjusted. In addition, other companies may use different measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of our non-GAAP financial measures as tools for comparison. A reconciliation is provided at the end of this press release for each historical non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP. We do not provide a quantitative reconciliation of the forward-looking non-GAAP financial measures included in this press release to the most directly comparable GAAP measures due to the high variability and difficulty to predict certain items excluded from these non-GAAP financial measures; in particular, the effects of stock-based compensation expense, taxes and amounts under the exchange tax receivable agreement, deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, and restructuring and transaction expenses. We expect the variability of these excluded items may have a significant, and potentially unpredictable, impact on our future GAAP financial results.

We define Adjusted Operating Income as income from operations plus (i) impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue, (ii) amortization of acquired technology and other acquired intangibles, (iii) equity-based compensation expense, (iv) restructuring and transaction-related expenses, and (v) integration costs and acquisition-related compensation. We define Adjusted Operating Income Margin as Adjusted Operating Income divided by the sum of revenue and the impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue.


We define Adjusted Net Income as Adjusted Operating Income less (i) interest expense, net (ii) other (income) expense, net, excluding TRA liability remeasurement expense (benefit) and (iii) income tax expense (benefit) including incremental tax effects of adjustments to arrive at Adjusted Operating Income and current tax benefits related to the TRA. We define Adjusted Net Income Per Share as Adjusted Net Income divided by diluted weighted average shares outstanding.

We define Unlevered Free Cash Flow as net cash provided from operating activities less (i) purchases of property and equipment and other assets, plus (ii) cash interest expense, (iii) cash payments related to restructuring and transaction-related expenses, and (iv) cash payments related to integration costs and acquisition-related compensation. Unlevered Free Cash Flow does not represent residual cash flow available for discretionary expenditures since, among other things, we have mandatory debt service requirements.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information

This press release contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by these statements. You can generally identify our forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “outlook,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “projection,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “trend,” “will,” “would” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. Any statements in this press release regarding future revenue, earnings, margins, financial performance, cash flow, liquidity or results of operations (including, but not limited to, the guidance provided under “Business Outlook”), and any other statements that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. We have based our forward-looking statements on our management’s beliefs and assumptions based on information available to our management at the time the statements are made. We caution you that assumptions, beliefs, expectations, intentions and projections about future events may and often do vary materially from actual results. Therefore, actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements.
Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements include, among other things: future economic, competitive, and regulatory conditions, the COVID-19 pandemic, the successful integration of acquired businesses, and future decisions made by us and our competitors. All of these factors are difficult or impossible to predict accurately and many of them are beyond our control. For a further list and description of these and other important risks and uncertainties that may affect our future operations, see Part I, Item 1A - Risk Factors in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we may update in Part II, Item 1A - Risk Factors in Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q we have filed or will file hereafter. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, investments, or other strategic transactions we may make. Each forward-looking statement contained in this presentation speaks only as of the date of this presentation, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by law.
About ZoomInfo
ZoomInfo (NASDAQ: ZI) is a leader in modern go-to-market software, data, and intelligence for more than 30,000 companies worldwide. ZoomInfo’s revenue operating system, RevOS, empowers business-to-business sales, marketing, operations, and recruiting professionals to hit their number by pairing

best-in-class technology with unrivaled data coverage, accuracy, and depth of company and contact information. With integrations embedded into workflows and technology stacks, including the leading CRM, Sales Engagement, Marketing Automation, and Talent Management applications, ZoomInfo drives more predictable, accelerated, and sustainable growth for its customers. ZoomInfo emphasizes GDPR and CCPA compliance. In addition to creating the industry’s first proactive notice program, the company is a registered data broker with the states of California and Vermont. Read about ZoomInfo’s commitment to compliance, privacy, and security. For more information about ZoomInfo’s leading go-to-market software, data, and intelligence, and how they help sales, marketing, operations, and recruiting professionals, please visit www.zoominfo.com.

Website Disclosure
ZoomInfo intends to use its website as a distribution channel of material company information. Financial and other important information regarding the Company is routinely posted on and accessible through the Company’s website at https://ir.zoominfo.com/. Accordingly, you should monitor the investor relations portion of our website at https://ir.zoominfo.com/ in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, and public conference calls and webcasts. In addition, you may automatically receive email alerts and other information about ZoomInfo when you enroll your email address by visiting the “Email Alerts” section of our investor relations page at https://ir.zoominfo.com/.


Investor Contact:
Jeremiah Sisitsky
VP of Investor Relations

Media Contact:
Steve Vittorioso
Director, Communications


ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except share data)
September 30,December 31,
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$406.3 $308.3 
Short-term investments32.4 18.4 
Accounts receivable, net164.9 187.0 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets53.5 27.1 
Income tax receivable6.1 4.9 
Total current assets663.2 545.7 
Restricted cash, non-current6.1 5.8 
Property and equipment, net50.2 41.7 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net65.4 59.8 
Intangible assets, net413.5 431.0 
Goodwill1,696.3 1,575.1 
Deferred tax assets4,050.5 4,116.0 
Deferred costs and other assets, net of current portion114.0 77.8 
Total assets$7,059.2 $6,852.9 
Liabilities and Permanent Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$22.0 $15.9 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities89.5 103.3 
Unearned revenue, current portion379.7 361.5 
Income taxes payable9.1 8.4 
Current portion of tax receivable agreements liability7.2 10.4 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities10.5 8.1 
Total current liabilities518.0 507.6 
Unearned revenue, net of current portion1.5 2.7 
Tax receivable agreements liability, net of current portion3,034.8 3,046.0 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion69.6 61.5 
Long-term debt, net of current portion1,235.0 1,232.9 
Deferred tax liabilities1.7 1.5 
Other long-term liabilities2.3 2.8 
Total liabilities4,862.9 4,855.0 
Commitments and Contingencies
Permanent Equity:
Class A common stock, par value $0.01
4.0 4.0 
Additional paid-in capital1,997.7 1,871.6 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)41.8 9.5 
Retained Earnings152.8 112.8 
Total equity2,196.3 1,997.9 
Total liabilities and permanent equity$7,059.2 $6,852.9 


ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in millions, except per share amounts; unaudited)
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
Revenue$287.6 $197.6 $796.4 $524.9 
Cost of service:
Cost of service(1)
35.9 27.2 103.4 72.1 
Amortization of acquired technology12.3 10.7 35.8 24.2 
Gross profit239.4 159.7 657.2 428.6 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing(1)
96.4 65.3 275.7 164.0 
Research and development(1)
54.2 34.4 149.3 78.8 
General and administrative(1)
31.2 23.4 88.2 64.1 
Amortization of other acquired intangibles
5.6 5.4 16.5 15.0 
Restructuring and transaction-related expenses
0.2 11.0 3.8 17.6 
Total operating expenses
187.6 139.5 533.5 339.5 
Income (loss) from operations
51.8 20.2 123.7 89.1 
Interest expense, net
11.6 13.9 35.1 30.5 
Loss on debt modification and extinguishment
— 1.8 — 7.7 
Other (income) expense, net
Income (loss) before income taxes
50.0 4.6 95.6 51.1 
Income tax expense (benefit)
32.1 45.5 55.6 101.4 
Net income (loss)17.9 (40.9)40.0 (50.3)
Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests— (0.3)— (22.2)
Net income (loss) attributable to ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.$17.9 $(40.6)$40.0 $(28.1)
Net income (loss) per share of Class A and Class C common stock:
Basic$0.04 $(0.15)$0.10 $(0.13)
Diluted$0.04 $(0.15)$0.10 $(0.13)
(1)Amounts include equity-based compensation expense, as follows:
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
Cost of service
$5.1 $2.8 $14.7 $9.5 
Sales and marketing
19.2 9.5 55.7 25.1 
Research and development
17.0 7.4 47.9 13.2 
General and administrative
6.8 4.8 19.3 11.9 
Total equity-based compensation expense
$48.1 $24.5 $137.6 $59.7 


ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in millions; unaudited)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income (loss)$40.0 $(50.3)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization65.2 49.6 
Amortization of debt discounts and issuance costs2.2 1.8 
Amortization of deferred commissions costs47.4 29.3 
Asset impairments— 2.7 
Loss on debt modification and extinguishment— 7.7 
Deferred consideration valuation adjustments— 0.2 
Equity-based compensation expense137.6 59.7 
Deferred income taxes47.5 84.5 
Tax receivable agreement remeasurement(9.5)(0.3)
Provision for bad debt expense1.8 3.1 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of acquisitions:
Accounts receivable22.6 7.2 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(6.3)(5.7)
Deferred costs and other assets, net of current portion(55.5)(33.5)
Income tax receivable(1.2)(1.6)
Accounts payable6.1 11.8 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(11.2)6.9 
Unearned revenue10.2 55.0 
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities296.9 228.1 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of short-term investments(40.7)(119.8)
Maturities of short-term investments26.6 52.0 
Proceeds from sales of short-term investments— 61.7 
Purchases of property and equipment and other assets(22.5)(15.8)
Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired(143.7)(717.5)
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(180.3)(739.4)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Payments of deferred consideration(1.1)(9.4)
Proceeds from debt— 1,071.8 
Repayment of debt— (581.4)
Payments of debt issuance and modification costs(0.4)(11.4)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options1.2 1.4 
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(12.7)(7.2)
Payments of equity issuance costs(0.3)(1.0)
Tax receivable agreement payments(5.0)— 
Tax distributions— (19.9)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(18.3)442.9 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash98.3 (68.4)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period314.1 271.0 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$412.4 $202.6 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period:
Cash and cash equivalents406.3 196.8 
Restricted cash, current— — 
Restricted cash, non-current6.1 5.8 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$412.4 $202.6 

Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Interest paid in cash$44.0 $26.3 
Cash paid for taxes$8.7 $15.6 
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Deferred variable consideration from acquisition of a business$1.1 $— 
Property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities$0.8 $3.0 
Estimated business combination consideration receivable$— $33.9 

ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Reconciliation of GAAP Operating Cash Flow to Unlevered Free Cash Flow
($ in millions; unaudited)
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
Cash flow from operations$85.7 $46.5 $296.9 $228.1 
Purchases of property and equipment and other assets(7.7)(4.8)(22.5)(15.8)
Interest paid in cash18.4 14.0 44.0 26.3 
Restructuring and transaction-related expenses paid in cash3.2 15.5 12.6 19.3 
Integration costs and acquisition-related compensation paid in cash0.2 2.1 3.0 4.7 
Unlevered Free Cash Flow$99.8 $73.3 $334.0 $262.6 


ZoomInfo Technologies Inc.
Reconciliation of GAAP Net Income (Loss) to Adjusted Net Income and Income (Loss) From Operations to Adjusted Operating Income
(in millions, except per share amounts; unaudited)
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
Net income (loss)$17.9 $(40.9)$40.0 $(50.3)
Add (less): Expense (benefit) from income taxes32.1 45.5 55.6 101.4 
Add: Interest expense, net11.6 13.9 35.1 30.5 
Add: Loss on debt modification and extinguishment— 1.8 — 7.7 
Add (less): Other expense (income), net(9.8)(0.1)(7.0)(0.2)
Income (loss) from operations51.8 20.2 123.7 89.1 
Add: Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue0.2 1.6 2.0 2.7 
Add: Amortization of acquired technology12.3 10.7 35.8 24.2 
Add: Amortization of other acquired intangibles5.6 5.4 16.5 15.0 
Add: Equity-based compensation48.1 24.5 137.6 59.7 
Add: Restructuring and transaction-related expenses0.2 11.0 3.8 17.6 
Add: Integration costs and acquisition-related expenses0.1 5.1 1.6 12.0 
Adjusted Operating Income118.4 78.4 320.9 220.2 
Less: Interest expense, net(11.6)(13.9)(35.1)(30.5)
Less (add): Other expense (income), net, excluding TRA liability remeasurement (benefit) expense(0.6)0.1 (2.4)0.1 
Add (less): Benefit (expense) from income taxes(32.1)(45.5)(55.6)(101.4)
Add (less): Tax impacts of adjustments to net income (loss)22.7 31.8 27.0 69.5 
Adjusted Net Income$96.8 $50.7 $254.7 $157.8 
Shares for Adjusted Net Income Per Share(1)
411 406410 405
Adjusted Net Income Per Share
$0.24 $0.13 $0.62 $0.39 
1.Diluted earnings per share is computed by giving effect to all potential weighted average Class A common stock, Class C common stock, and any securities that are convertible into Class A common stock, including options and restricted stock units. The dilutive effect of outstanding awards and convertible securities is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method, excluding deemed repurchases assuming proceeds from unrecognized compensation as required by GAAP. Shares and grants issued in conjunction with the IPO were assumed to be issued at the beginning of the period.

Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
($ in millions)2022202120222021
Adjusted Operating Income$118.4 $78.4 $320.9 $220.2 
Revenue287.6 197.6 796.4 524.9 
Impact of fair value adjustments to acquired unearned revenue0.2 1.6 2.0 2.7 
Revenue for adjusted operating margin calculation$287.8 $199.2 $798.4 $527.5 
Adjusted Operating Income Margin41 %39 %40 %42 %